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0111 Sedimentary Geology Overview_am

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SEDIMENTARY GEOLOGY OVERVIEW Andrew S. Madof Orals Review - 2007 January 12, 2007 SEDIMENTARY GEOLOGY = Sedimentology (process) + Stratigraphy (response) ã Sedimentology = study of PROCESSES (i.e. production, composition, transport, and deposition of sediment) ã Stratigraphy = study of RESPONSES (i.e. inferring the controls on the spatial and temporal changes of strata) → exact processes that created the rocks can’t be know because only the rocks are left, not the processes Sedimentation A
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  SEDIMENTARY GEOLOGY OVERVIEW Andrew S. Madof Orals Review - 2007January 12, 2007  SEDIMENTARY GEOLOGY =Sedimentology (process) + Stratigraphy (response) ã   Sedimentology = study of PROCESSES (i.e.production, composition, transport, and deposition of sediment) ã   Stratigraphy = study of RESPONSES (i.e.inferring the controls on the spatial and temporalchanges of strata) → exact processes that created therocks can’t be know because only the rocks are left, not the processes  Sedimentation And Sedimentary RocksSedimentary Rocks: ãForm 75% of the rocks exposed at the Earth’s Surface ã Are the reservoirs for fossil fuels, iron andaluminum ores, and groundwater ãRecord of Earth’s history    Sediment ã Sediment = loose, solid particles and can be:  –  Terrigenous = fragments from silicates (igneous and/ormetamorphics)  –  Biogenic = fossils (carbonate - reefs; silicates - forams)  –  Chemical   = precipates (halite, gypsum, anhydrite, etc…) - note:with chemical sedimentary rocks, evaporation > precipitationand/or supersaturation in closed basins (lakes or oceans) ã Classified by particle size  –  Boulder - >256 mm  –  Cobble - 64 to 256 mm  –  Pebble - 2 to 64 mm  –  Sand - 1/16 to 2 mm  –  Silt - 1/256 to 1/16 mm  –  Clay - <1/256 mm
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