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2HOURS. Lesson #3 Where s the Power? Learning Objectives. Materials You Need



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3 Lesson #3 Where s the Power? Subject Areas Science, Social Studies, Language Arts Student Skills cooperation, investigation, peer teaching, communication, critical thinking, reflecting Developing Vocabulary
3 Lesson #3 Where s the Power? Subject Areas Science, Social Studies, Language Arts Student Skills cooperation, investigation, peer teaching, communication, critical thinking, reflecting Developing Vocabulary fossil fuels, tidal power, solar power, nuclear power, wind power, hydro power, geothermal, biomass, bioenergy, ethanol, biodiesel, photosynthesis, micro-hydro, displacement, greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide, fission, atom, gravity, tidal barrage, industrialized, water cycle, competitive, earth s crust, continental plates, volcano, geyser, generator, turbines, watt, megawatt, gigawatt, terawatt RELATED BACKGROUNDERS Renewable Energy Non-Renewable Energy Students become experts on the pros and cons of one of nine renewable and non-renewable energy sources. In small groups, they share what they learn with their classmates. They each write a short persuasive letter about the energy source of their choice. This lesson may be best suited to students in Grades 6 and 7. Learning Objectives understand the pros and cons of a variety of energy sources work collaboratively in small groups to share their energy learning demonstrate their learning by writing a persuasive letter in support of a particular energy source Materials You Need The Energy Source Cards, provided at the end of this lesson plan. You need one Energy Source Card per student. Select enough from the set of 36 to ensure that there are at least three or four students in each energy source group: there are four cards for each of the nine energy sources. If you choose to have only three cards (i.e., students) per energy source, excluding the same card number will make it easier to group students later. The jigsaw handout, also provided at the end of this lesson plan. You need a copy for each student. Cardboard backing that you can paste the Energy Source Cards onto for durability. You may want to laminate them as well. A basket or container to hold the Energy Source Cards. Two EnerAction backgrounders: Renewable Energy Sources and Non-Renewable Energy Sources. Time Estimate Lead In Main Activity Wrap Up 0 minutes 60 minutes 40 minutes Note: You will need about one hour to prepare the Energy Source Cards. HOURS 3 Lead In 0 minutes What You Do Lead In. Create a list of student ideas about how our use of energy affects the planet. Focus their attention on different energy sources and impacts. Ask questions to find out what students already know about energy use: Where do we get our energy? What are some of the sources called? How do the sources differ? How does energy production impact If your students are not ready to create such a list, work together as a class to review the material in two EnerAction backgrounders: Renewable Energy Sources and Non-Renewable Energy Sources.. Tell students that they will have a chance to learn more about energy sources by focusing in on one and then sharing their findings in groups. 3. Place the Energy Source Cards you selected into a basket or container. Ask students to select a card and keep others from seeing it. Alternatively, you can pre-select cards for certain students to ensure that each group has a blending of skills. 4. Give students time to read their cards to themselves. 5. Have students form themselves into groups by energy source. To do so, students can mime their energy source (i.e., use only gestures and sounds but no words or written clues) until everyone has gathered into groups. 6. Ask groups to find a space to work in while you distribute a jigsaw handout to each student. Main Activity 60 minutes Main Activity PART Energy Source Groups 7. Ask groups to read their cards together. Inform students that the statements on their cards may fit into one or more columns on the jigsaw handout. Tell them to decide which column(s) provides the best fit for each statement, and encourage them to discuss the reasons for each choice they make. Explain that good group skills and collective decision making are important to successfully completing this task. 8. When all statements have been read, each student in the same group will have written the same information for the group s energy source onto their own jigsaw handout. 3 What You Do Main Activity (continued) PART Jigsaw Groups 9. Jigsaw the groups to create three or four new ones with one student expert represented for each of the different energy sources. To do so, you can group students by the number on their cards, assigning a different number to each corner of the classroom. You may need to double-up some experts. 0. In their new groups, have each student read the two statements on their handout that they consider to be the most important for their energy source. members of the group record the statements on their handouts. At the end of the exchange, each student will have some information about each energy source. Wrap Up 40 minutes Wrap Up. Ask questions to debrief the activity as a class: What did you learn about energy sources? What information on the cards seemed most important to you? What was the most challenging part of this activity? Which energy sources do you feel most strongly about and why? Were there ideas about a specific energy source that convince you it is especially good for Canadians? What ideas suggest the opposite? Why? If we stop using fossil fuels, what changes would we need to make to the way we get around and transport things? How will it affect natural and built environments if countries use more renewable than non-renewable energy sources? If sustain means to keep going or operating, what do we need to sustain while we meet our energy needs? How did people in other times and places use energy for transportation, food and heat? What about your great grandparents, for example? How can this knowledge help us deal with the growing energy needs we see today? How might we balance the amount of energy we use?. Ask students to select one energy source and write a persuasive letter to someone at home or to someone else in their community, province or country. Explain that the goal of the letter is to convince the reader why the energy source is particularly appealing and how it helps Canadians safely meet their energy needs. Encourage students to use examples from the jigsaw activity and the class discussion to explain their ideas. 3 Adaptations & Extensions Stage a debate. After students classify the energy sources as renewable or non-renewable, they can debate these two categories using the information from the Energy Source Cards as key points. To strengthen their arguments, students could also do further research into energy sources (e.g., they could investigate how hydro-electric power can be both a renewable and a non-renewable energy resource). Build a number line. Using student input, build a number line that shows watts, kilowatts, megawatts, gigawatts and terawatts with numbers and units. Define watt as the amount of energy needed by a Christmas light bulb for one second. Define kilowatt hours, the unit used by electrical supply companies, as a measure of how much energy is delivered to our homes, schools and businesses. Assign student presentations. Have students create a multimedia presentation about a chosen energy source and share it with the class. Give students time to find out interesting facts about their energy source beyond what they learned from the Energy Source Cards. You could use the EnerAction backgrounders (especially Backgrounder #3, Energy Sources: Both Renewable and Non-Renewable) or have them do an internet search. Use the Wrap Up to begin again. Use the questions provided during the Wrap Up as starting points for writing exercises, research projects or group discussions. Contrast then & now. Have students create web addresses that reflect the differences between modern day energy use and that of the past (e.g., vs. They can also create a webpage or poster to illustrate these ideas. Add an elearning component. Students can visit the EnerAction website at to identify energy use choices by exploring the Carbon Calculator. Encourage students to consider what features of the different energy sources would appeal most to Electra and Sparky. How would the Carbon Critters likely feel about energy source choices? Go on a fieldtrip. Take students to one or more regional energy generating plant. Ask students to prepare questions before the visit. After the visit, have them report on their experience and express their views on local energy production by writing an opinion article. Assessment Rubric These criteria can be expanded or adapted to emphasize different aspects of the lesson. You can use the rubric to help students to selfassess their participation and experience, and then pose follow-up questions to the class encouraging them to reflect further on their challenges and insights. 3 Knowledge & Understanding 3 4 Identify a variety of forms of energy Demonstrates limited understanding by identifying one form of energy Demonstrates some understanding by identifying two or three forms of energy Demonstrates considerable understanding by identifying at least four forms of energy Demonstrates a thorough understanding by identifying more than four forms of energy Identify the topic, purpose and audience for a variety of writing forms Ineffective identification of topic, purpose and audience Limited effectiveness of identification of topic, purpose and audience Effective identification of topic, purpose and audience Highly effective and comprehensive identification of topic, purpose and audience Thinking 3 4 Identify their point of view and other possible points of view, and determine, when appropriate, if their own view is balanced and supported by evidence Unable to clarify their point of view and others, and unable to present a balanced view, supported by evidence Simple presentation of their point of view and others; can determine if their own view is balanced and supported by minimal evidence Detailed presentation of their point of view and others; can effectively determine if their own view is balanced and supported by some evidence Comprehensive presentation of their point of view and others; can very effectively determine if their own view is balanced and supported by a significant amount of evidence Communicate orally and through a variety of text (e.g., graphic, print, media) with different audiences for a variety of purposes Limited effectiveness; communicates in a simple and fairly understandable form Some effectiveness; communicates with one variety of text iderable effectiveness; communicates with a variety of text to a specific audience High degree of effectiveness; communicates with a wide variety of texts with a variety of audiences Application 3 4 Compare the advantages and disadvantages of using renewable energy sources as opposed to non-renewable sources Cannot effectively compare the advantages and disadvantages of using renewable energy sources as opposed to non-renewable sources Can compare the advantages and disadvantages of using renewable energy sources as opposed to nonrenewable sources to a limited extent Can compare the advantages and disadvantages of using renewable energy sources as opposed to non-renewable sources effectively Can compare the advantages and disadvantages of using renewable energy sources as opposed to non-renewable sources to a high degree What is it? OIL & GAS Oil, which is also called crude oil, was formed millions of years ago from fossilized animals. Crude oil is usually a black-brown mixture of different sized hydrocarbons as well as sulphur, oxygen and nitrogen. Oil is an non-renewable resource. Natural gas supplies are expected to last 67 to 7 more years, and oil only about 40 to 45 more years. 3 OIL & GAS Oil and gas are used for heat and electric power as well as for fuel for transportation. Many products that we buy and use are made from crude oil for example, gasoline (octane), diesel, jet fuel, and all plastics. When crude oil is found mixed with sand, as it is in the Athabasca oil sands in Alberta, it is called crude bitumen or oil sands. OIL & GAS Most of the natural gas and oil in Canada is shipped from place to place in pipelines. On average, every Canadians uses about three tonnes of oil each year. Like the people of the United States, Saudi Arabia, the Netherlands and Iceland, Canadians use more oil per person than other people in the world. More than half of Canada s total energy use comes from oil and gas: 33% oil and 5% gas. 3 OIL & GAS 4 Oil creates more harmful carbon dioxide (CO ) than natural gas, but it creates less than coal. Each barrel (~60 litres) of oil that comes from the oil sands of Alberta uses two to five barrels (~30 to 800 litres) of fresh water. In some parts of Canada, the carbon dioxide (CO ) that is created when oil is produced could be buried underground in deep water bodies instead of released into the air. What is it? COAL Coal was formed millions of years ago from decayed and fossilized plants. Coal is a brownish-black rock made mostly of carbon and sulphur. It burns easily and releases heat energy. Coal is a non-renewable resource that burns easily and releases heat energy. COAL Coal can be used to create heat for industry and to create electric power. When burned in a power plant, about one third of the energy stored in coal is used to generate electricity. The rest is lost as waste heat. Coal is the fossil fuel we have the most of, and the earth s supply of coal is expected to last another 64 to 5 years. COAL Coal played an important role in history because it allowed countries to become industrialized. Canada used 35 million tonnes of coal equivalent in 006. That adds up to about % of world s use of coal that year. Coal is the biggest source of electricity worldwide. 3 COAL 4 Burning coal creates large amounts of greenhouse gas. It also puts mercury and sulphur into the air and creates a solid waste that is called slag. Some people want to try to make coal power cleaner by capturing the carbon dioxide (CO ) created by coal power plants and burying it underground. To mine coal, you usually have to remove huge amounts of soil from the ground. That can harm natural areas and destroy local habitats. What is it? The sun is the source of all energy on Earth. It drives the water cycle and wind, and provides all animals and humans with their food supply. The sun s heat and light are a renewable energy source. They send about 000 times more energy to the earth every day than humans use. After you build a solar system to collect the sun s energy, this energy source costs almost nothing. SOLAR SOLAR Canada is one of the sunniest countries in the world even during the winter. Despite all of our sunshine, Canada uses very little solar energy for heat and power. Germany, Spain and China use much more. Canada s first big solar electricity plant is a 40MW plant that will be built near Sarnia, Ontario. 3 Because the sun isn t always shining, solar power needs to be stored as heat or electricity, or used along with other energy sources. Solar energy can be collected as heat using glasscovered flat metal plates, or as electricity using solar cells that are made from silicon or other semiconductor materials. The set up costs for collecting solar power have kept it from becoming really popular around the world, but it is becoming much more affordable. SOLAR 3 SOLAR 4 Solar collectors can be put on roofs, over parking lots or on unused land. They don t have to get in the way. When solar collectors are made, very small amounts of harmful materials must be used. These toxic materials are not released into the environment, and the final product is completely safe. Solar cells can make 9 to7 times more energy than is needed to produce them. What is it? Geothermal energy is the heat stored in the earth s crust from the movement of continental plates and the earth s molten core. It is a renewable energy source. The temperature of the earth rises about 3 o C for every 00 meters deeper you go, but it is hotter near volcanos. The earth s crust heats and releases hot water and/or steam when underground water bodies come in contact with volcanic materials like Old Faithful, for example. GEOTHERMAL GEOTHERMAL Geothermal energy is used in the Philippines, Italy, Indonesia, Mexico, New Zealand, Iceland, Japan and China. The government of British Columbia is now studying places in that province that would be good for developing geothermal power. If Meager Mountain, the volcanic complex in British Columbia, had a geothermal energy plant, it could produce as much as MW of electricity. GEOTHERMAL Geothermal energy can be used for heat and electric power. Geothermal plants can run 4 hours per day and 7 days a week. Unlike other kinds of energy plants, geothermal plants do not have to take the extra step of producing steam to power turbine generators. With geothermal, the steam is already there. 3 GEOTHERMAL 4 The hot water pumped to the surface sometimes has pollutants in it, such as sulphur, which must be removed before the water can be used in a power plant. The total greenhouse gas emissions from geothermal energy plants are only 5% of the emissions of fossil fuel power plants. Some of the best sources for geothermal energy are in remote wilderness areas, which would have to be disrupted by roads pipes. What is it? Humans have been using bioenergy since we learned to use fire thousands of years ago. Plants and trees grow because photosynthesis turns the sun s energy and carbon dioxide (CO ) into stalks, branches and leaves. These are called biomass. Biomass is a renewable resource if it is used for energy at a slower rate than it is grown, and if there is still enough left over for its other important uses such as food, habitat and lumber. Today, 9 90% of the energy in developing countries is bioenergy. In Brazil, one quarter of the cars run on ethanol, which is fuel that is produced from grasses and plant waste. Ethanol creates less pollution than gasoline or diesel fuel. In Canada, ethanol is made from corn and wheat. To be a real alternative to oil, biofuels such as ethanol must not take away from the food supply or affect natural areas. What is it? To create hydro power, huge amounts of water are stored and then released to make energy available when it is needed. Hydo power is a renewable source of energy. Many of Canada s largest rivers have been dammed to generate electricity, using the energy of falling water to turn giant turbines. Of all the water on Earth, only 3% is fresh water, and 97% is salt water. BIOENERGY BIOENERGY HYDRO HYDRO More than 50% of Canada s electricity comes from hydro. British Columbia, Manitoba and Quebec generate more than 75% of their power through hydroelectricity. Canada could more than double its hydro power use (from 70,000 MW to 60,000 MW) but that would impact many more rivers, watersheds and valleys. 3 Biomass can be used to produce heat by burning or making gas. It produces electricity by making steam. It produces transport fuels by making ethanol and biodiesel. Bioenergy is limited by how much farmland and forests are available and by the process of photosynthesis that produces biomass. Collecting and processing biomass resources in large quantities can be a challenge. 3 BIOENERGY 4 When used as a renewable energy resource, bioenergy puts the same amount of greenhouse gases into the air as it would if the biomass was to decompose naturally. In Canada, greenhouse gases are released when fossil fuels are used to farm and process crops for ethanol, and then to transport the ethanol. When used, a litre of ethanol produces one third less greenhouse gas than burning oil. BIOENERGY HYDRO About 9% of world s electricity comes from hydro power, and most of that comes from 45,000 large hydro dams. About 6% of the world s hydro power comes from small rivers and streams that can generate up to 0 MW of electricity. In remote places i
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