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920-3861-1-PB | Incarnation | Poetry



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  A CRITICAL ANALYSISOF POET JAYADEVA’S GĪTA-GOVINDA * Dr. Harekrisha !eher INTROD CTION # Lyric poems play a very signifcant role or development o language andliterature. Whatever may be language, the poetic and musical expressiono heartiest eelings reveals the inner sense o lie and gladdens thelovers o music, art and literature. Sanskrit literature is prosperous withthe tradition o lyric poems. In comparison to prose, !ti or Song has somedistinct attractive and appealing eature that directly touches the core o the heart o connoisseurs. he lyrical #ow o Sanskrit composition has itsorigin rom the $edic literature, especially S%ma&$eda. In 'lassicalSanskrit Literature, starting rom ‘Meghadūta   kāvya’   o (%lid%sa, the lyricpoems en)oy a prominent position in the pen o some eminent poets.'ompositions such as * Moha-Mudgara’   and ‘Bhaja-Govindam’ o +dia-kar%ch%rya enhance importance and beauty o Sanskrit lyric traditionwith their melodious structure.   o the arena o lyric poetry, oet /ayadeva o twelth&century 0.1. hasuni2ue contribution in his nectar&showering pen. /ayadeva is one amongthe distinguished poets o 3disha, who has been immortal or hisextraordinary and uni2ue Sanskrit work. 4orn in the village (enduvilva onthe bank o 5iver r%ch!, /ayadeva, a great devotee o Lord /agann%thaand the loving husband o adm%vat!, composed such a marvellous k%vyathat delights the people even in the present age with its literary lovelinessand musical splendour. !ta&ovinda o oet /ayadeva is a great creation depicting the eternallove&story o 5%dh% and (rishna. 'onglomeration o S%hitya, Sa-g!ta and(al% 6literature, music and art7 are simultaneously preserved in thisk%vya. 0s enumerated in the scriptures, Sa-g!ta consists o 8ritya, !taand $%dya 61ance, Song and 9usical Sound7. 3dissi 1ance and 3dissi Sa-g!ta have intimate and inevitable relationshipwith !ta&ovinda k%vya. 5egarding own lyric poem, the poet himsel writes: “Yad gāndharva-kalāsu kauśalamanudhyānam cha yad vaishņavam, Yachchhrińgāra-viveka-tattvamapi yat kāvyeshu līlāyitam /  1  Tat sarvam Jayadeva-paņita-kaveh !rishņaika-tānātmanah, ānandāh pariś#dhayantu sudhiyah $rī-%īta-%#vindatah // &   6.;II < =>7. [Whatever musical excellence in Gāndharva arts Whatever devotional concentration o! the aishnavitesWhatever relish o! erotic sentiment !or the connoisseurs Whatever #lay!ully delineated in the literary com#ositions $ll those things the %ise may delight!ully #uri!y learning !rom the &eauti!ul kāvya Gita-Govinda%ritten &y the 'andit-'oet (ayadeva%hose mind is ever-engrossed in )rishna alone*+ '()ll *nglish Translati#ns #+ anskrit erses u#ted in this article are .y the auth#r r0 1arekrishna 2eher3  /ayadeva?s !ta&ovinda orms a masterpiece o lyrical composition thathas been bestowing literary taste and aesthetic pleasure captivating earsand minds o the Sanskrit&lovers all around the world. houghts o the$aishnavites, excellence o the devotees in musical arts and relish o erotic sentiment or the lovers o literature @ all these are oundintermingled in this k%vya. In the present article, endeavours have beenmade to throw lights on some literary aspects o this remarkable work in acritical perspective.   DEPICTION OF NAT RE # 8ature is inevitably associated with every part o human lie. Arom the$edic literature till today?s literary compositions, human behaviour isattributed to 8ature and 8ature?s behaviour is attributed to the humanbeings. Bvery poet, somehow or other, is inclined to delineate 8ature,rakriti, in own style and presentation. In /ayadeva?s work, 8ature fnds aplace o special importance and recognition. In the very beginning o !ta&ovinda, 8ature is seen vividlydelineated. 9ain theme o this k%vya is the erotic stories o Lord (rishnaand 5%dh%. /ayadeva likes to indicate the matter at the outset within thedescription o 8ature in the frst verse : “2eghair meduramam.aram vana-.huvah śyāmāstamāla-drumair 4aktam .hīrurayam tvameva tadimam 5ādhe 6 griham prāpaya / 7ttham 4anda-nideśataśchalitay#h pratyadhva-ku89a-drumam5ādhā-2ādhavay#r 9ayanti Yamunā-k:le rahah kelayah // &   6. I< =7. [‘,he sky is encom#assed &y clouds*With the hue o! ,amāla trees 2  darksome a##ear the sites o! %oods*,his dear )āhnā!eels very timid at night* .ādhā / 0ou there!ore #leaseaccom#any him to reach home aright*’ ,hus &y the %ords o! )ing 1andaste##ed ahead &oth .ādhā and Mādhavato%ards the tree o! &o%ers on the %ay*Glory to their #lays o! love secret and gayon the &ank o! river 0amunā*+  oet /ayadeva announces the word *9egha? 6'loud7 which is a primeeature o 8ature and simile o Lord (rishna who is well&known as ‘Ghana-2yāma’  , darkish as cloud. In the frst Cloka o the k%vya, it is ound thatseveral acets o 8ature such as cloud, sky, am%la trees, night and Damun% river have been illustrated. 9oreover, all these aspects areblackish by nature and very similar to the dark&bodied (rishna. It may beundoubtedly stated that the poet has consciously used these aspects o 8ature to beautiully enhance the literary value as well as the glory o (rishna who is akin to them. Aurther the depiction o darkness isamalgamated with the pro)ection o pleasurable play o 5%dh% and(rishna. 5%dh% is internally understood as *'hit akti?, the 1ivine ower o (nowledge and 'onsciousness in the orm o Light that dispels the murkyveil o ignorance in the heart o the mundane beings. 'ontextual descriptions o cloud, sky, trees such as am%la andcreepers such as Lava-ga, gentle Eephyr, cuckoos, mango&blossoms,spring season, 9oon, darkness, ocean and the like acets o 8ature areound in a very impressive manner. 0mong various aspects o 8ature, Alower is depicted as a primesymbol o beauty and love in literary works o many poets. /ayadeva isnot an exception to this matter. In !ta&ovinda, a beautiul AloweryAigure o 5%dh% has been revealed by her lover (rishna in a verse o 'anto&; : “;andh:ka-dyuti-.āndhav#<yamadharah snigdh#2adh:kachchhavir %aņaś =haņi 6 chakāsti nīla-4alina-śrī-m#chanam l#chanam / 4āsā.hyeti Tila-pras:na-padavīm !undā.ha-danti >riye 6>rāyas tvan-mukha-sevayā vi9ayate viśvam sa >ushpāyudhah // & 6. ; < F7. In this verse, 5%dh%?s limbs have been said to have ac2uired theloveliness o several #owers. 0ddressing his beloved with sweet lovingwords, (rishna states: [,hese li#s o! thine really &ear similarity  3  %ith the &eauty o! 3o%er Bandhūka*  4el!-esteemed 5ady /,hy comely cheeks com#ile the lustres o! Madhūka* Mani!esting the &eauty o! &lue lotuses thy eyes are very lovely* ,he stature o! ,ila 3o%er thy nose &ears* ,hy teeth  My 6ear / s#read the radiance o! )unda 3o%er* 4erving thy 7ne !ace %ith these 7ve 3o%ers the 8lo%er-sha!ted 5ove-god 9u#id con:uers the entire universe indeed*+ Such expression o #oral ornamentation is really remarkable and worth&mentioning. Aurther, descriptions o 9%dhav! creeper, $aruGa tree,8%gakeCara #ower, (imCuka 6al%Ca7 #ower, 4akula #ower, $anam%lik%,0timuktaka creeper, 9ango tree, 4etasa creeper&bower, lotus, (uravaka#ower and the like are contextually observed in this k%vya and thesematters re#ect an intimate relationship with 8ature. ortrayal o 8aturewith an ecological perspective can also be marked in discussion o severalfgures o speech, sentiment and literary metres.  ALLITERATION AND ALA$%&RAS #  0 popular verse ound in 'lassical Sanskrit literature about thesignifcance o some epical 2ualities runs thus : “?pamā !ālidāsasya ;hāraverartha-gauravam / 4aishadhe pada-lālityam 2āghe santi tray# guņāh //&  In Sanskrit Literature, appreciably special signifcance is observed inthe Simile o (%lid%sa, ravity o 9eaning o 4h%ravi and race o 1ictiono r!harsha, the author o 8aishadha 9ah%k%vya, and the combination o these three epical attributes is seen in 9%gha&k%vya which is known asiCup%lavadha&k%vya written by 9%gha. Such remarks are maintained incase o 9ah%k%vyas or epic poems. 4ut in case o !ti&k%vya or Lyricpoem, ada&L%litya or race o 1iction reigns supreme in the excellentcomposition o /ayadeva?s !ta&ovinda. he poet himsel speaks o thespecial 2ualities o his own writing in the ollowing lines:  2adhura-k#mala-kānta-padāvalīm,$riņu tadā Jayadeva- arasvatīm //&   6. I < H7.!ta&ovinda k%vya is endowed with sweet, sot and beautiul words.9usical auence, serenity, rhythmic elo2uence, lucidity, emotional touchand sweetness o meaning are the fne eatures o this lyric poem.'onsidering all these matters, it may not be inappropriate to proclaim # “%#vinde >ada-@ālityam0& 4
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