of 21
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.

920-3861-1-PB | Incarnation | Poetry

Category:

Documents

Publish on:

Views: 9 | Pages: 21

Extension: PDF | Download: 0

Share
Description
dd
Transcript
  A CRITICAL ANALYSISOF POET JAYADEVA’S GĪTA-GOVINDA * Dr. Harekrisha !eher INTROD CTION # Lyric poems play a very signifcant role or development o language andliterature. Whatever may be language, the poetic and musical expressiono heartiest eelings reveals the inner sense o lie and gladdens thelovers o music, art and literature. Sanskrit literature is prosperous withthe tradition o lyric poems. In comparison to prose, !ti or Song has somedistinct attractive and appealing eature that directly touches the core o the heart o connoisseurs. he lyrical #ow o Sanskrit composition has itsorigin rom the $edic literature, especially S%ma&$eda. In 'lassicalSanskrit Literature, starting rom ‘Meghadūta   kāvya’   o (%lid%sa, the lyricpoems en)oy a prominent position in the pen o some eminent poets.'ompositions such as * Moha-Mudgara’   and ‘Bhaja-Govindam’ o +dia-kar%ch%rya enhance importance and beauty o Sanskrit lyric traditionwith their melodious structure.   o the arena o lyric poetry, oet /ayadeva o twelth&century 0.1. hasuni2ue contribution in his nectar&showering pen. /ayadeva is one amongthe distinguished poets o 3disha, who has been immortal or hisextraordinary and uni2ue Sanskrit work. 4orn in the village (enduvilva onthe bank o 5iver r%ch!, /ayadeva, a great devotee o Lord /agann%thaand the loving husband o adm%vat!, composed such a marvellous k%vyathat delights the people even in the present age with its literary lovelinessand musical splendour. !ta&ovinda o oet /ayadeva is a great creation depicting the eternallove&story o 5%dh% and (rishna. 'onglomeration o S%hitya, Sa-g!ta and(al% 6literature, music and art7 are simultaneously preserved in thisk%vya. 0s enumerated in the scriptures, Sa-g!ta consists o 8ritya, !taand $%dya 61ance, Song and 9usical Sound7. 3dissi 1ance and 3dissi Sa-g!ta have intimate and inevitable relationshipwith !ta&ovinda k%vya. 5egarding own lyric poem, the poet himsel writes: “Yad gāndharva-kalāsu kauśalamanudhyānam cha yad vaishņavam, Yachchhrińgāra-viveka-tattvamapi yat kāvyeshu līlāyitam /  1  Tat sarvam Jayadeva-paņita-kaveh !rishņaika-tānātmanah, ānandāh pariś#dhayantu sudhiyah $rī-%īta-%#vindatah // &   6.;II < =>7. [Whatever musical excellence in Gāndharva arts Whatever devotional concentration o! the aishnavitesWhatever relish o! erotic sentiment !or the connoisseurs Whatever #lay!ully delineated in the literary com#ositions $ll those things the %ise may delight!ully #uri!y learning !rom the &eauti!ul kāvya Gita-Govinda%ritten &y the 'andit-'oet (ayadeva%hose mind is ever-engrossed in )rishna alone*+ '()ll *nglish Translati#ns #+ anskrit erses u#ted in this article are .y the auth#r r0 1arekrishna 2eher3  /ayadeva?s !ta&ovinda orms a masterpiece o lyrical composition thathas been bestowing literary taste and aesthetic pleasure captivating earsand minds o the Sanskrit&lovers all around the world. houghts o the$aishnavites, excellence o the devotees in musical arts and relish o erotic sentiment or the lovers o literature @ all these are oundintermingled in this k%vya. In the present article, endeavours have beenmade to throw lights on some literary aspects o this remarkable work in acritical perspective.   DEPICTION OF NAT RE # 8ature is inevitably associated with every part o human lie. Arom the$edic literature till today?s literary compositions, human behaviour isattributed to 8ature and 8ature?s behaviour is attributed to the humanbeings. Bvery poet, somehow or other, is inclined to delineate 8ature,rakriti, in own style and presentation. In /ayadeva?s work, 8ature fnds aplace o special importance and recognition. In the very beginning o !ta&ovinda, 8ature is seen vividlydelineated. 9ain theme o this k%vya is the erotic stories o Lord (rishnaand 5%dh%. /ayadeva likes to indicate the matter at the outset within thedescription o 8ature in the frst verse : “2eghair meduramam.aram vana-.huvah śyāmāstamāla-drumair 4aktam .hīrurayam tvameva tadimam 5ādhe 6 griham prāpaya / 7ttham 4anda-nideśataśchalitay#h pratyadhva-ku89a-drumam5ādhā-2ādhavay#r 9ayanti Yamunā-k:le rahah kelayah // &   6. I< =7. [‘,he sky is encom#assed &y clouds*With the hue o! ,amāla trees 2  darksome a##ear the sites o! %oods*,his dear )āhnā!eels very timid at night* .ādhā / 0ou there!ore #leaseaccom#any him to reach home aright*’ ,hus &y the %ords o! )ing 1andaste##ed ahead &oth .ādhā and Mādhavato%ards the tree o! &o%ers on the %ay*Glory to their #lays o! love secret and gayon the &ank o! river 0amunā*+  oet /ayadeva announces the word *9egha? 6'loud7 which is a primeeature o 8ature and simile o Lord (rishna who is well&known as ‘Ghana-2yāma’  , darkish as cloud. In the frst Cloka o the k%vya, it is ound thatseveral acets o 8ature such as cloud, sky, am%la trees, night and Damun% river have been illustrated. 9oreover, all these aspects areblackish by nature and very similar to the dark&bodied (rishna. It may beundoubtedly stated that the poet has consciously used these aspects o 8ature to beautiully enhance the literary value as well as the glory o (rishna who is akin to them. Aurther the depiction o darkness isamalgamated with the pro)ection o pleasurable play o 5%dh% and(rishna. 5%dh% is internally understood as *'hit akti?, the 1ivine ower o (nowledge and 'onsciousness in the orm o Light that dispels the murkyveil o ignorance in the heart o the mundane beings. 'ontextual descriptions o cloud, sky, trees such as am%la andcreepers such as Lava-ga, gentle Eephyr, cuckoos, mango&blossoms,spring season, 9oon, darkness, ocean and the like acets o 8ature areound in a very impressive manner. 0mong various aspects o 8ature, Alower is depicted as a primesymbol o beauty and love in literary works o many poets. /ayadeva isnot an exception to this matter. In !ta&ovinda, a beautiul AloweryAigure o 5%dh% has been revealed by her lover (rishna in a verse o 'anto&; : “;andh:ka-dyuti-.āndhav#<yamadharah snigdh#2adh:kachchhavir %aņaś =haņi 6 chakāsti nīla-4alina-śrī-m#chanam l#chanam / 4āsā.hyeti Tila-pras:na-padavīm !undā.ha-danti >riye 6>rāyas tvan-mukha-sevayā vi9ayate viśvam sa >ushpāyudhah // & 6. ; < F7. In this verse, 5%dh%?s limbs have been said to have ac2uired theloveliness o several #owers. 0ddressing his beloved with sweet lovingwords, (rishna states: [,hese li#s o! thine really &ear similarity  3  %ith the &eauty o! 3o%er Bandhūka*  4el!-esteemed 5ady /,hy comely cheeks com#ile the lustres o! Madhūka* Mani!esting the &eauty o! &lue lotuses thy eyes are very lovely* ,he stature o! ,ila 3o%er thy nose &ears* ,hy teeth  My 6ear / s#read the radiance o! )unda 3o%er* 4erving thy 7ne !ace %ith these 7ve 3o%ers the 8lo%er-sha!ted 5ove-god 9u#id con:uers the entire universe indeed*+ Such expression o #oral ornamentation is really remarkable and worth&mentioning. Aurther, descriptions o 9%dhav! creeper, $aruGa tree,8%gakeCara #ower, (imCuka 6al%Ca7 #ower, 4akula #ower, $anam%lik%,0timuktaka creeper, 9ango tree, 4etasa creeper&bower, lotus, (uravaka#ower and the like are contextually observed in this k%vya and thesematters re#ect an intimate relationship with 8ature. ortrayal o 8aturewith an ecological perspective can also be marked in discussion o severalfgures o speech, sentiment and literary metres.  ALLITERATION AND ALA$%&RAS #  0 popular verse ound in 'lassical Sanskrit literature about thesignifcance o some epical 2ualities runs thus : “?pamā !ālidāsasya ;hāraverartha-gauravam / 4aishadhe pada-lālityam 2āghe santi tray# guņāh //&  In Sanskrit Literature, appreciably special signifcance is observed inthe Simile o (%lid%sa, ravity o 9eaning o 4h%ravi and race o 1ictiono r!harsha, the author o 8aishadha 9ah%k%vya, and the combination o these three epical attributes is seen in 9%gha&k%vya which is known asiCup%lavadha&k%vya written by 9%gha. Such remarks are maintained incase o 9ah%k%vyas or epic poems. 4ut in case o !ti&k%vya or Lyricpoem, ada&L%litya or race o 1iction reigns supreme in the excellentcomposition o /ayadeva?s !ta&ovinda. he poet himsel speaks o thespecial 2ualities o his own writing in the ollowing lines:  2adhura-k#mala-kānta-padāvalīm,$riņu tadā Jayadeva- arasvatīm //&   6. I < H7.!ta&ovinda k%vya is endowed with sweet, sot and beautiul words.9usical auence, serenity, rhythmic elo2uence, lucidity, emotional touchand sweetness o meaning are the fne eatures o this lyric poem.'onsidering all these matters, it may not be inappropriate to proclaim # “%#vinde >ada-@ālityam0& 4
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks