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AS Level Media Studies - Audiences and Institutions (Music) - Revision Booklet



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1.   1   AS Level Media Studies Revision Booklet Unit G322B: Audiences and Institutions 2.   2   Contents 3 Exam Overview Exam Topics 4 Mark Scheme 5 Success Criteria…
  • 1.   1   AS Level Media Studies Revision Booklet Unit G322B: Audiences and Institutions
  • 2.   2   Contents 3 Exam Overview Exam Topics 4 Mark Scheme 5 Success Criteria 5 Key Terminology Glossary 7 Sony Music Entertainment Beyonce 10 XL Recordings Adele Radiohead 13 Distort Entertainment Alexisonfire Lower Than Atlantis 16 Key Points 19 Essay Points 21 Other Resources
  • 3.   3   Overview Candidates may cover the following material in their responses to the question: • The characteristics of cross media convergence and synergy • How successful is the marketing of products and services in the media area studies • The success and failures of marketing strategies used by media companies • How key promotional strategies sell a product/service to an audience • The significance of cross media and marketing in relation to the media area they have studied Candidates should be given credit for their knowledge and understanding, illustrated through case study material, in any of these areas; there is no requirement that they should all be covered equally. Candidates will be assessed on their ability to illustrate patterns of production, distribution, marketing and promotion, exchange and consumption through relevant case study examples and their own experiences. Exam Topics • The issues raised by media ownership • The importance of cross-media convergence and synergy in production, distribution, and marketing • The technologies that have been introduced in recent years at the levels of production, distribution, marketing, and exchange. • The significance of the proliferation of hardware and content for institutions and audiences. • The importance of technological convergence for institutions and audiences • The issues raised in the targeting of national and local audiences (specifically British) by international or global institutions. • The ways in which your own experiences of media consumption illustrate wider patterns of audience behaviour.
  • 4.   4   Mark Scheme Explanation/analysis/argument: Level 1 0 – 7 Marks Level 2 8 – 11 Marks Level 3 12 – 15 Marks Level 4 16 – 20 Marks • Shows minimal understanding of the task • Minimal knowledge and understanding of institutional/audience practices – general opinions or assertions predominate • Minimal argument evident, with little reference to case study material • Of minimal relevance to set question or a brief response (under 1 & ½ pages) • Shows basic understanding of the task • Basic knowledge and understanding of institutional/audience practices – factual knowledge will have some accuracy • Basic argument evident, with some reference to case study material • Some relevance to set question • Shows proficient understanding of the task • Proficient knowledge and understanding of institutional/audience practices – factual knowledge is mostly accurate • Some developed argument, supported by reference to case study material • Mostly relevant to set question • Shows excellent understanding of the task • Excellent knowledge and understanding of institutional/audience practices – factual knowledge is relevant and accurate • A clear and developed argument, substantiated by detailed reference to case study material • Clearly relevant to set question Use of Examples: Level 1 0 – 7 Marks Level 2 8 – 11 Marks Level 3 12 – 15 Marks Level 4 16 – 20 Marks • Offers minimal use of case study material • Offers a limited range of or inappropriate examples • Offers examples of minimal relevance to set question • Offers some evidence from case study material • Offers a partial range of examples from case study and own experience • Offers examples of some relevance to the set question • Offers consistent evidence from case study material • Offers a range of examples from case study and own experience • Offers examples which are mostly relevant to the set question • Offers frequent evidence from case study material • A wide range and appropriateness of examples • Offers a full range of detailed examples from case study and own experience • Offers examples which are clearly relevant to the set question Use of Terminology: Level 1 0 – 3 Marks Level 2 4 – 5 Marks Level 3 6 – 7 Marks Level 4 8 – 10 Marks • Minimal or frequently inaccurate use of appropriate terminology • Some simple ideas have been expressed. • There will be some errors of spelling, punctuation and grammar, which will be noticeable and intrusive. • Writing may also lack legibility. • Some terminology used, although there may be some inaccuracies • Some simple ideas have been expressed in an appropriate context. • There are likely to be some errors of spelling, punctuation and grammar of which some may be noticeable and intrusive. • Use of terminology is mostly accurate • Relatively straightforward ideas have been expressed with some clarity and fluency. Arguments are generally relevant, though may stray from the point of the question. • There will be some errors of spelling, punctuation and grammar, but these are unlikely to be intrusive or obscure meaning. • Use of terminology is relevant and accurate • Complex issues have been expressed clearly and fluently • Sentences and paragraphs, consistently relevant, have been well structured, using appropriate technical terminology. • There may be few, if any, errors of spelling, punctuation and grammar. U E D C B A Total: / 50 (0-19) (20-24) (25-29) (30-34) (35-39) (40-50)
  • 5.   5   Success Criteria Ask yourself… • Shown excellent understanding of the question by linking my answer back to the question confidently? • Shown an excellent knowledge and understanding of the music industry and its audience? • Included confident and accurate facts which support my ideas and opinions? • Made a clear, confident argument which frequently refers to my case study? • Ensured my ideas remain relevant to the question? • Used frequent confident examples? • Referred to my own experiences of the music industry? • Confidently used terminology throughout my answer? Key Terminology Glossary Consumption People buying CDs, downloading music, paying for live concert tickets and purchasing any related products Convergence Technological: Hardware and software coming together across media. Cross-media: Companies coming together across similar boundaries of production, distribution and consumption Copyright The owned rights of a creative or intellectual property (musical score/song) Distribution Promoting music and getting it into shops, on the radio and downloaded for payment. Download The practice of selecting and receiving digital information from an online source on a computer, as opposed to sending it by upload Independent A media organisation or activity that is not connected to a major company Production The process of creating and recording music Promotion and Marketing An aspect of distribution that creates interest in a media product Push Marketing A one way ‘push’ of content; from institutions to audiences. Institutions deliver content in one direction. Audiences have no opportunity to interact. For example print and TV adverts. Pull Marketing A concept where audiences demand and retrieve content on their own terms; for example downloading tour dates or streaming a music video from YouTube. Long Tail Used to refer to the large number of products that sell in small quantities; ‘niche’, as contrasted with the small number of best-selling products. Instant Pop A marketing concept of releasing music for sale as soon as it has had airtime on radio or other mediums. Subsidiary A record label owned by another larger label or music group
  • 6.   6   Synergy The interconnected marketing and distribution of related media products across a range of platforms and sectors The 'Big 3' / Conglomerate The 3 MAJOR music labels: Sony Music Group, Universal Music Group and Warner Music Group. Formally 'The Big Four', became 3 after EMI's merger with Universal and Sony in November 2011. Horizontal Integration The process of two companies coming together through merger Vertical Integration When a media company profits from all areas of production, distribution and consumption Web 2.0 The second phase of the internet, where the focus shifts from people receiving information and services to people creating and sharing material Exhibition Public display of a media product, specifically in the music industry, live concerts, etc. Proliferation Refers to the rapid increase and growth of hardware, software, and content for the institutions and audiences. Exchange How music products are given and received, i.e. peer-to-peer sharing, torrents, iTunes Music Store, Spotify, etc. Audience The consumers of media products. Institution A media institution is an established, often profit-based organization that deals in the creation and distribution of media products. A&R Artists and repertoire (A&R) is the division of a record label or music publishing company that is responsible for talent scouting and overseeing the artistic development of recording artists and/or songwriters. It also acts as a liaison between artists and the record label or publishing company; every activity involving artists to the point of album release is generally considered under the control of, and responsibility of, A&R. Manager Guides the career of an artist/band Producer A record producer is an individual working within the music industry, whose job is to oversee and manage the recording (i.e. "production") of an artist's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, selecting songs and/or musicians, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, and supervising the entire process through mixing and mastering. Producers also often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules, and negotiations. Mixing The process of achieving appropriate levels, effects, dynamics, and other elements for each track on a piece of recorded music. An important process to ensure recorded music is more appealing to the audience. Mastering The final post-production process before recorded music is transferred to its end-format (ie. CD, digital track, etc.). The process can entail things such as compression, EQ, balancing; it is the final “wax and polish” process before music is distributed in a final format. Licensing Allowing third-parties to use work legally; i.e. adverts, trailers, etc. Publishers A publishing contract is made with artist; the publishing company then collect royalties from commercial use, public performance (live, radio), mechanicals (recorded music sales).
  • 7.   7   Sony Music Entertainment • Founded 1929 in New York City, as ARC o 1938: Columbia/CBS Records o 1991: Sony Music Entertainment o 2004: Sony BMG o 2008: Sony Music Entertainment • A media conglomerate • Part of ‘The Big 3’; Universal, Sony, Warner (1.0) o Purchased EMI’s publishing division in 2011 • Controls 30% of the music industry (1.1) • Has divisions in film, gaming, computing, home electronics, etc. • Benefits from horizontal integration; EMI, Syco Music, other subsidiaries with specialization in specific genres (1.2) • Vertical integration; benefits from all processes including production, distribution, marketing, promotion, and consumption/exchange (1.3 & 1.4) UMG   39%   WMG   19%   SME   30%   Indies   12%   %  of  Music  Industry   Diagram  1.1   Diagram  1.3   Diagram  1.4   Diagram  1.0   Diagram  1.2  
  • 8.   8   • Sony utilizes cross-media convergence by marketing their artists/products via different mediums such as TV (The X-Factor and Got Talent); creates synergy for their artists and music products (1.5) Diagram  1.5   • Cross-media convergence and synergy by releasing new music via the video game Rock Band (also an example of technological convergence) (1.6) Diagram  1.6  
  • 9.   9   Beyonce • Large production budget due to being on a media conglomerate, Sony Music Entertainment; subsidiary label Parkwood Entertainment via Columbia Records via Sony Music Entertainment • Production; access to big name producers and engineers including Pharrell Williams, Jay Z, Justin Timberlake, Timbaland, etc. • Major distribution channels due to being on major label, SME/Columbia/Parkwood • Exclusive distribution deal for 2013 self- titled album via iTunes; released internationally via all 100+ iTunes stores (2.0) • Unique marketing & promotion strategy (there was none!); in turn, created its own buzz and word-of- mouth promotion • Cross-media convergence; endorsements with fashion, electronics, perfume, soft drink, and video game companies; creates synergy but also promoting the Beyonce brand (2.1) • Cross-media convergence; acting in films such as Cadillac Records; creates synergy by releasing soundtrack for the film; further promotes and exposes Beyonce to new audiences (2.2) • Audiences consumed and exchanged Beyonce’s new album; 80,000 sales within first 3 hours; 430,000 in first 3 days, consumed using converged technology (exclusive digital release via iTunes); due to proliferation of hardware and content, audiences can consume via iPods, iPhones, smartphones, tablets, PCs, etc. Diagram  2.0   Diagram  2.1   Diagram  2.2  
  • 10.   10   XL Recordings • UK independent label • Created in 1989 • Owned by Richard Russell • Had many successful dance, electronic, drum n’ bass records in early 1990s including The Prodigy (#1 records in UK & US, millions of albums sold, • Successful acts; The Prodigy, Radiohead, Adele, Tyler The Creator, The xx, M.I.A., Dizzee Rascal, The White Stripes, Prodigy • Russell changed direction of the label in mid 90s • Focuses on producing very few records per year that are high- quality; utilizing major recording studios, well-known producers and engineers • Has access to mainstream distribution streams in UK; easy to reach UK audience, and even higher profile by pushing UK artists; licenses releases to major labels in other territories to ensure major label representation and distribution internationally (ie. Adele via Columbia/Sony in US) • Utilizes modern marketing and promotion methods including Web 2.0 tools including the label’s own website being directly linked to their Wikipedia entry (audiences contribute to the Wiki page)
  • 11.   11   Adele • British artist • ‘21’ latest album released via XL Recordings o 16x Platinum in UK o Diamond in US (10,000,000) o 10x Platinum in Europe o 33 millions sold worldwide • Grammy Award winner (3.1) o Album of the Year ‘21’ o Best Pop Vocal Album ‘21’ o Best Pop Solo Performance ‘Someone Like You’ o Record of the Year ‘Rolling in the Deep’ o Song of the Year ‘Rolling in the Deep’ o Best Music Video ‘Rolling in the Deep’ • Billboard Award Winner o Top Billboard Album of the Year ‘21’ o Top Pop Album ‘21’ • Academy Award winner: o Best Original Song ‘Skyfall’   • Golden Globe Award winner: o Best Original Song ‘Skyfall’ • Adele’s success with ‘21’ and ‘Skyfall’ helped increase XL Recordings revenue from £3 million to £33 million in just one year • Used traditional and modern distribution methods; physical album and digital album released at same time; creates synergy by releasing physical, digital, and vinyl versions of ‘21’ (3.3); cross-media and synergy by releasing live DVD ‘Live from Albert Hall’ (3.0)   • Releasing theme song for the film ‘Skyfall’ creates synergy for Adele’s brand and the Skyfall brand; cross- media convergence (3.2) Diagram  3.3  Diagram  3.2  Diagram  3.1   Diagram  3.0  
  • 12.   12   Radiohead • ‘In Rainbows’ o Released 2007 o #1 UK Album Charts o #1 Billboard o 1.75 million copies sold § 1 million via website o Mercury Prize winner § Best British Album § Best Irish Album • Digital rights entirely owned by Radiohead • Released in creative way; smart and innovative marketing campaign; ‘Pay What You Want’ campaign • Physical distribution rights, XL Recordings; XL didn’t receive revenue on digital sales, because all digital rights owned by Radiohead; digitally released without record label via band’s own website • Utilized mainstream distribution via XL Recordings distribution channels in UK and international • Creates synergy by releasing digital version, physical, and special edition vinyl of ‘In Rainbows’
  • 13.   13   Distort Entertainment • Toronto-based independent record labelFounded in 2002 by Greg Below (EMI studio engineer and producer) and Mitch Joel (journalist and publicist) • Specialize in heavy music; Alexisonfire, Lower Than Atlantis, Cancer Bats, Architects, Comeback Kid • Distributed by Universal Music in Canada • Typically license to Hassle Records in UK, a small indie label, who is then distributed by PIAS • Successful in Canada because of access to grants and funding systems; FACTOR and MuchFACT. Those funds are not applicable to international acts (Lower Than Atlantis). No/minimal budget to spend on production, marketing and promotion of LTA record • Heavy reliance on digital distribution in UK because no availability to major distributor; used indie distributor for physical (PIAS). • Disadvantage of marketing in UK; no UK office, licensed material to third-party indie labels Hassle Records and Wolf At Your Door Records. • Successful in Canada because distributed through major (Universal) plus use of grants and funds MuchFACT and FACTOR • Cross-media convergence with Rock Band (Periphery and Cancer Bats song available to download and play in video game); Guitar Hero (Alexisonfire); NHL 2010 (Cancer Bats and Alexisonfire) • Utilized heavy digital distribution; audiences consume using converged technologies including smartphones, iPods/iPhones, iTunes, Spotify, etc.
  • 14.   14   Alexisonfire • Toronto-based band, on Distort Entertainment (Canada) • Major success in Canada o 2 certified Gold albums o 2 certified Platinum albums o #1 & #2 chart positions o Access to funding and grants as they are considered an indie artist, being on Distort Inc. (Factor and MuchFACT) • Some success in UK; o Despite selling out concerts and playing large festivals (Leeds, Reading, Download, etc.) they’ve only reached #70 on the UK charts and have no album sales certifications in UK o Lack of synergy when releasing their self- titled album; released two years later in UK vs. Canadian release date (31/10/2002 – CAN & 05/07/2014 – UK); album covers and marketing & promotion tools were different in Canada and UK o No access to major distribution in UK; whereas in Canada they are distributed by a major (Universal Music Group) • Utilized cross-media convergence and synergy by providing music for the video games NHL ’10 and Guitar Hero • Created synergy by releasing physical, digital and vinyl versions of their releases
  • 15.   15   Lower Than Atlantis • From Watford, UK • Distort Inc. (Canada) / A Wolf At Your Door Records (UK) • Some success whilst on indie labels; generating underground buzz • No charting positions whilst on indies (Distort/AWAYD) • After contract with Distort / A Wolf At Your Door ended, signed to Island Records (a subsidiary of Universal) in 2012 • 3rd LP ‘Changing Tune’ released on Island/Universal in October 2012 o Reached #25 in UK – highest for the band yet! • Utilized digital marketing and promotion including YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, free online downloads via label websites and their Facebook page • Created synergy by releasing ‘Changing Tune’ in physical, digital, and vinyl versions
  • 16.   16   Key Points Topic/Points   Sony  Music   Beyonce   XL  Recordings   Adele  &  Radiohead   Distort  Inc.   Lower  Than  Atlantis  &   Alexisonfire   Production   Beyonce  (Columbia/Sony):   -­‐  Produced  an  entire  album  and   accompanying  music  videos  at  once;   released  as  a  package;  requires  large   budget  and  has  acce
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