of 22
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.




Publish on:

Views: 2 | Pages: 22

Extension: PDF | Download: 0

Chapter 5 SPANISH COLONIAL COIN PRODUCTION I N AMERICA & PANAM A Kings and Coin Design s On October 19, 1469, Isabella, heiress to the throne of Castile, married Ferdinand, King o f Naples and Sicily since
Chapter 5 SPANISH COLONIAL COIN PRODUCTION I N AMERICA & PANAM A Kings and Coin Design s On October 19, 1469, Isabella, heiress to the throne of Castile, married Ferdinand, King o f Naples and Sicily since 1458, and heir to the throne of Aragon. In 1474 Isabella became the Queen of Castile and Le6n and Ferdinand assumed the throne of Aragon in 1479, bringing thes e regions under the joint Crown and ultimately leading to a unified Spain that included all th e Iberian Peninsula except Portugal. ' Ferdinand and Isabella represent the beginning of modern Spanish coinage, as on Jun e 13, 1497, at Medina dei Campo, they issued a fundamental monetary decree that for the first tim e instituted one design for all coinage in the unified Spain. The private mints were banned an d each of the first official mints was given an identifying mark or mintmark, as is know n nowadays. 2 Also, weight and fineness were established and fractional components of the system called Recd, implemented by Pedro I (Peter 1) ; King of Castile and Le6n, around the middle o f the 14 `h century, were made.' Isabella died in 1504, and Ferdinand continued to rule alone until his own death in Joanna, who married Philip the Handsome of the House of Hapsburg in 1496, was the onl y surviving offspring of the marriage of Isabella and Ferdinand at the moment of her father' s death. At the time of her mother's death in 1504 she was proclaimed Queen of Castile, but b y 1506, when her husband died, she had become completely insane. So in 1516, Charles, he r eldest son, was effectively given the throne of Spain at the age of 16.` Although he becam e Charles I of Spain he is better known as Charles V. as a consequence of being heir to the Germa n throne. Two years later he assumed this throne as well. With it he brought an empire compose d of many dominions, arranging in 1519 his election as Holy Roman Emperor. I Real coin minted in Segovia, assaye r P, for use in Peninsular (mainland ) Spain, showing the Coat of Arms an d legend corresponding to the reign o f Ferdinand and Isabella. Image courtesy of Cayón Auctions. During the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, as was customary during the alliance of two kingdoms, the Coat of Arms of both these Monarchs were combined as one, with quadrants 1 and 4 representing the Arms of the queen and quadrants 2 and 3 the king. Later, the Coat o f Arms was further divided into five parts with a small pomegranate being added to the botto m after the conquest of the Province of Granada, a prize too dear to keep silent. 73 Quintant Quintan t 1 2 Quintant Quintan t 3 4 Quintant 5 DESCRIPTION OF ABOVE OUINTANTS : 1 & 4: ARMS OF CASTILE AN D LEO N 2 & 3: ARMS OF ARAGON AN D NAPLES/SICIL Y 5: ARMS OF GRANAD A During the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, as was customary during the alliance of two kingdoms, th e Coat of Arms of both these monarchs were combined as one. As can be seen above, quintants I and 4 represented the Arms of the queen and quintants 2 and 3 the arms of the king. As seen on quintant 5, a small pomegranate was added after 1492 with the conquest of the Province of Granada. This Coat of Arms was used on Spanish coins minted during the reign of these Monarchs, both peninsular issues and the ones specially made and authorized for use in America by decre e in Except for the one Reales from Granada minted between 1504 and 1516, when thi s shield appears, the legend of these coins always identities Ferdinand and Isabella, even in case s when minted after the new king had taken the throne.' When in 1535 the Crown of Spain authorized the first minting of coins in America to tak e place at Mexico, it was instituted that the shield with the Arms of Castile and Le6n, as previousl y used on the Spanish coins between 1475 and 1497, would now be incorporated, with the additio n of Granada, into the coin design for the new coins minted in the New World. 13 Left: Enlarged images of the obverse of: a I Castellano minted in Seville, Spain, between and 1497 (coin A) and a 4 Realer minted in Mexic o around 1537 or 1538 (coin B). Although the shiel d on both coins is similar in appearance, the shiel d of image B also has the Arms of Granada included as part of its components. Source: Cayó n Auctions (coin A) and Ponterio & Associates, Inc. (coin B). 74 A. B. C. The Columnar Device of King Charles V Many have assumed that the motto of Plus Ultra or PLUS ULTRA (using V's as U's to give it a Lati n appearance) is an adaptation from an ancient inscription. The motto is said to derive from a warning inscription o f Non Plus Ultra, meaning no more beyond, said to have been placed by the mythological hero Hercules on a set o f memorial columns he placed in the farthest reaches of Africa and Europe, in the Strait of Gibraltar, t o commemorate his journey there and the many labors performed along the way. Later, these same Columns were proclaimed boundary markers to indicate that there was nothing more beyond this point and that the end of th e known world had been reached. 6 Mr. Earl Rosenthal's research has provided proof that King Charles V's motto did not originate from th e adaptation of any such ancient inscription 7. In fact, as Mr. Rosenthal documents from Paolo Giovio's writings a, King Charles' adopted the Columnar Device with its motto of Plus Oultre, spelled in its French form (image A), as a result of advice received from his personal physician and counselor at the Burgundian court in Flanders, th e Milanese Luigi Marliano, more than a year before his first trip to Spain in The motto of Plus Oultre ( More Beyond ) apparently derived from a Dantesque tradition, and recalled a famous cry of medieval pilgrim s on the way to the Holy Land.9 The use of this motto now challenged the ancient myth that the Pillars of Hercule s had been placed in the Strait of Gibraltar to warn sailors that they had reached the end of the habitable world, which was no longer applicable with the discovery of the New World. Soon after the adoption of the Plus Oultre motto there was an attempt to give it a Latin appearance b y transforming its U's into V's (image B). But this could not hide the motto's link to the French culture, which seem s to have caused opposition in Spain. Immediately a revised version was developed with the creation of the no w more familiar PLUS ULTRA (image Q. The details behind the creation of the new form of this motto are not clear, but as Mr. Rosenthal indicates, King Charles V's advisers seem to have opted not to use the correct Lati n form of PLVS ULTERIVS, finding it too weak to the forceful Plus ultra and decided to give up correctness fo r impact and memorability. to What is clear is that by the time that coins began to be minted in the Americas thi s PLUS VLTRA motto, sometimes being abbreviated (image D), was the one selected for the new coin design. Illustrations containing the Columnar Device of King Charles V (above) : A. Plaque from the Potence (Chain of Arms) of the Herald of the Order of the Golden Fleece (Netherlandish, circ a 1517). The Potence belongs to this Order and is on loan at the treasury of the Collection of Sculpture an d Decorative Art of the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. Picture courtesy of the Kunsthistorisches Museum. B. Tax stamp granted to Castilla dei Oro in Source : (D Ministerio de Cultura. Archivo General de Indias, Panamá, 233, L. I, F C. A 1519 image of the Columnar Device, choir stalls, Barcelona, Cathedral. D. Mexico 3 Reales, circa 1537, showing the Columnar Device with the PLVS VLTRA motto abbreviated a s PLVS VLT. Source : UBS Auctions. 75 The design of the first silver coins minted in the Ne w.? X World consisted of a crowned shield with the Arms of M. Castile, Le6n, and Granada on one side and the Pillars IM of Hercules on the other. The Pillars of Hercules wer e a mythological reference to the straits of Gibraltar, recognized as boundary markers to indicate that ther e was nothing more beyond this point, and one of the Above : 3 Realer coin. The coins known in personal devices adopted by King Charles V himself. this denomination were struck at the min t of Mexico only during The word plus, meaning more, was placed between Although Santo Domingo was also given the pillars, representing that there was more beyond o r approval to strike 3 Reales coins, none is plus ultra and its abbreviations, as it would later b e known to exist. (Picture courtesy of spelled on these coins. The legend was written in Lati n Superior Galleries Auctions) using both sides of the coin to complete its context. The spellings vary but the translation always reads : Charles and Joanna, Rulers of Spain and th e Indies. Since the motto begins on the shield side and ends on the pillars side, we will use th e shield as the obverse, the front of the coin, and the pillars as the reverse, the back of the coin. The above design, referred to as the early pillars design, was minted on silver coins a t Mexico ( ) and Santo Domingo (1543?-1552). The only major change to this desig n consisted of waves added under the pillars. This change represents the second series fro m Mexico ( ?). Although not of major importance, it is convenient also to mention that some of the Sant o Domingo coins from this issue show only a partial legend with the names of the Monarch s repeated on both sides (see illustration on page 13). Charles V abdicated the Spanish throne in 1556 to his son Philip 11. During his reig n Spain would reach its peak in power. In 1565, by Royal decree, he established the mint at Cit y of Kings (Lima). This, the first mint of South America, began minting coins in 1568, and unti l 1571 it used the pillars and waves design as in the second series of Mexico. The legend, alway s in Latin, reflected a major change. Unlike Mexico, which continued using the old legend afte r Philip 11 had assumed the throne, Lima's legend reads : Philip IL By the Grace of God, - King o f Spain and the Indies. Right : Portrait of Philip If as seen on a unifac e medal from Jacome Trezzo dated Phili p 11, who had been proclaimed King of Naples i n 1554, became King of Spain in 1556 when hi s father, Charles V, abdicated the throne to him. Image courtesy of Cay6n Auctions. On March 8, 1570, King Philip II mandated a new design for all coins. The new design was to bear on all 8, 4, 2, and 1 Reoles a crowned Hapsburg Shield on one side to represent th e Arms of the reigning monarch, and on the other side castles and lions, the symbols of th e kingdoms whose union was considered the building blocks for what later became known a s Spain, with a cross to represent the union between church and state. A tressure, as ornament, 76 composed of parentheses ( ) and braces { ) was placed around the cross. Where the shield woul d have been, the '/z Rea(es had the name of the king in the form of a monogram, crowned, with th e same reverse as the other denominations, except that all Spanish Colonial mints, with exception s at Mexico, omitted the tressure. As for the '/ Rea/es, they had a shield with a castle on one sid e and a shield with a lion on the other, both crowned. From left to right : 8, 4, 2, I,'/~ and'/. Rea/es. These coins from Potosi, assayer R (Alonso de Rincón), depict the design mandated and used on each of the different denominations, according to the decree o f Images courtesy of UBS Auction s Interestingly, the shield-type coins produced in Mexico under the new decree of show the king's ordinal II in the legend, like the previous pillar-type coins of Lima, but the ne w shield-type coins of Lima (and later La Plata and Potosi) do not. (Santo Domingo also retained the king's ordinal in its brief coinage of 1578, which along with Mexican-type cross, with globe s on the ends of each arm of the cross, shows Mexican influence on Santo Domingo). Since th e actual documents sent to Mexico and Lima about the new design have not been found (thoug h we do know from subsequent correspondence that Lima received the order on April 24, and the new dies on March 1, 1572), we do not know the reason for the disparity ; but th e document that gave Panama its mint (22 March 1579), which includes guidelines for the required legend, does in fact omit the king's ordinal. Therefore it seems that the first draft of the order was made and sent to Mexico, possibly being received in late 1570 or very early 1571, but then a modification for the legend of the coinage of the Americas was instituted, being implemente d when the order was drafted at a later date for Peru. Even with the small differences that these coins carried, as all mints started producing th e new coins with the same basic components and legends, they were what can truly be called th e first standardized monetary unit for all Spanish American Colonies. Throughout the 16 th century they were continuously minted in Mexico, starting possibly as early as 1571, and in Potosi i n These coins were also minted during different periods in Santo Domingo (1578), Lima (1572, and 1592), La Plata (late 1573-early 1574) and Panama ( ?). 77 A, A. Lima 8 Reales, Assayer R (Alonso d e Rincón) King's Ordinal 1 1 INCLUDED. B. Mexico 8 Reales, Assayer O (Bernardo d e Ofiate). circa King's Ordinal I I INCLUDED. C. Santo Domingo 4 Reules, Assayer X (Cristóbal (Xpoval] de Medina), King's Ordinal II INCLUDED. B C. D E. D. Potosí 8 Reules, Assayer R (Alonso d e Rincón), circa King's Ordinal I I OMITTED. 0 E. Panama 2 Reales, Assayer X (Name Unknown), circa King' s Ordinal I I OMITTED. The shield-type coins produced in Mexic o under the new decree of 1570 show th e King's ordinal II in the legend, like th e previous pillar-type coins minted in Lim a between 1568 and Santo Domingo, whose brief coinage of 1578 show s Mexican influence, also retained thi s characteristic. But the new shield-type coins of Lima, Potosi and Panama, al l omitted the King's ordinal from thei r legends. It is important to mention that th e document that gave Panama its mint, dated 22 March 1579, does omit the King' s ordinal as a requirement for the legend o f the coins minted in Panama. With thi s said, it seems that the first draft of th e order for the new shield-type coins wa s sent to Mexico, possibly in late 1570 o r very early Then a modification for the legend of the coinage of the America s was instituted, omitting the King's ordina l 11 when the draft for Peru was made. W e know that the order for the new shield - type coins arrived in Lima on April 24, 1571, and the new dies on March COIN SOURCES : A & D: UBS Auctions. B. Ponterio & Associates, Inc. C. Photographic Archive of th e Asociación Numismática Español a (from Monzen Und Medaillen Auktion). E. Counesy of Mr. Nicolás L.iakopulos Palc6n. 78 Panama's Dics and Punche s When the design of the coins was changed, Philip 11 ensured that there was no mistake i n..fiat he expected and ordered the new dies and punches needed to make these new coins to b e sent, along with decrees and guidelines to follow for this new required design. Panama was n o exception. As indicated by a decree of March 13 ; 1579, the dies, punches and other tools neede d for making the Reales of 4, 2, 1 and ''/z, in Panama, as mandated, were sent. Humberto Burzi o writes that, from a document sent by Philip 11 to Santo Domingo dated December U, 1573, fo r the minting of the coins with the new design, we can tell of the existence of 64 different punche s in a complete kit for making dies. The punches included in the kit were numbered, helping the diesinker to select the correc t ones to make the dies for each denomination. Cuho was the Spanish word used for a complete die. Using the sense of complete die, although not commonly practiced, is more appropriate, since it helps to clarify that when discussing the matter of the dies needed for making the coins. two components, the iroquel (trussel, or upper die) and eila (pile, or lower die), had to be present. Only with these two components present could we say that a complete die was ready fo r striking the two sides of each individual coin, simultaneously, creating its obverse and revers e designs. To facilitate the uninterrupted minting of coins, Spain had ruled an additional upper di e was required to have a complete die ; that is, there would be one lower and two upper dies. The reason for this requirement, of which the officials in Panama were informed when instrument s for the making of coins were sent in 1579, deals with the manner in which the dies wer e positioned for the striking of coins. The lower die had a metal tongue at its base, so it could be sunk into an already prepared wooden block in an anvil making it a fixed piece, stationary, whereas the upper die would be cut into the end of a bar. Since the upper die was hand-hel d during the making of the coins, it could be more easily damaged by the frequent and direc t hammer blows applied in striking these coins, which explains this need for an extra upper die. The most elaborate design of the coin, being the harder and more time consuming t o manufacture, was thus reserved for the lower die, because of its longer life span. According to the document from March 13, 1579, the quantity of lower and upper die s required to be present per complete die and the numbered punches to be used for the designs an d legend that were to be featured on the coins to be minted in Panama were the following : 4 Reales : I lower die and 2 upper dies to make the complete di e 3 thick punches, No. 3, for making these die s plus letters, No. 15 (for the legend ) 9 punches for the Coat of Arms, No. 9 2 medium size punches of castles and lions, No. 2 79 2 Reales : 1 lower die and 2 upper dies to make the complete die 3 thick punches, No. 3, for making these die s plus 15 letters, No. 15 (for the legend ) 9 punches for the Coat of Arms, No. 9 medium size punches of castles and lions, No. 2 1 Real : I lower die and 2 upper dies to make the complete di e 3 thick punches, No. 3, for making these die s plus 15 letters, No. 15 (for the legend ) 9 punches for the Coat of Arms, No. 9 2 medium size punches of castles and lions ; No. 2 Real : 1 lower die and 2 upper dies to make the complete di e 3 thick punches, No. 3, for making these die s plus 15 letters, No. 15 (for the legend ) 2 punches of a cross granadura (punch that makes a series of points or dots). No. 51 & No. 2 2 medium size punches of castles and lions, No. 2 Also included were four compasses for laying out the surface of each die. These could b e used with any of the dies for the different denominations. Since these dies were engraved by hand, element by element, placing each punch into th e appropriate empty spaces on its surface, the above-mentioned compasses were included so that once the diesinker had determined the location of the center, a compass could be used for cuttin g into the die several circles as guides for the inner and outer beading (granaclura). This beading, although decorative in nature, would then serve to separate the legend that was to be hammere d into the outer circle from the inner design (shield or monogram of the king's name) and th e appropriate lettering (assayer mark and mintmark) that were to be placed inside the inner circl e using the various punches, features which depended upon the denomination that was bein g prepared. Note that the legend of the coins (Philip By the Grace of God / King of Spain and th e Indies), written in Latin, appears as : PHILIPPVS D. G. HISPANIARVM ET INDIARVM RE X. Only 15 letters are used as indicated in the document above and as is confirmed by these coins. The 15 letters utilized were : 1) P 2) H 3) 1 4) L 5) V 6) S 7) D 8) G 9) A 10) N 11) R 12) M 13) E 14) T 15) X 80 Components of the Desig n Let's look in detail at some of the components that made up the design of the coins fro m Panama : The Cross : The cross represents the church and acknowledges its importance i n matters o
Similar documents
View more...
Search Related
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks