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CHRONOLOGY. The United States publishes the first National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) about Chile.


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CHRONOLOGY January 1961 The United States begins subsidizing Chile's Christian Democratie Party (PDC). March 1961 Salvador Allende begins to deal with the KGB. O c t o b e r The United States publishes
CHRONOLOGY January 1961 The United States begins subsidizing Chile's Christian Democratie Party (PDC). March 1961 Salvador Allende begins to deal with the KGB. O c t o b e r The United States publishes the first National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) about Chile. N o v e m b e r John F. Kennedy is assassinated. Lyndon B. Johnson beeomes president. March 1964 The CIA begins its covert action program to prevent Allende's electoral victory in the 1964 presidential election. Sept. 4, 1964 Eduardo Frei wins the Chilean presidential eleetion. May 1968 The U.S. government decides to initiate a covert operation to affect the 1969 congressional elections in Chile. January 1969 The United States publishes the second NIE about Chile. Jan. 20, 1969 Richard Milhous Nixon is inaugurated the thirtyseventh president of the United States. v i : i i H O S T I L E I N T E N T March 1969 Chile holds congressional elections. October 1969 Gen. Roberto Viaux leads Tacnazo revolt. March 1970 The United States begins its spoiling operation against Allende. July 1970 The United States issues National Security Study Memorandum 97 (NSSM 97). August 1970 Track I begins. Sept. 4, 1970 Allende wins a plurality in the Chilean presidential election. Sept. 15, 1970 The NSC takes control of planning covert operations in Chile. Track II (Operation FU/BELT) begins. Oct. 22, 1970 Gen. Rene Schneider is assassinated; he dies on O c t o b e r 2 5. Oct. 24, 1970 Allende is confirmed as president of Chile; he is inaugurated on November 5. November 1970 Raymond Warren replaces Henry Hecksher as COS in Santiago. Nov. 5, 1970 NSSM 97 is revised. Nov. 9, 1970 National Security Decision Memorandum 93 is issued. Nov. 17, 1970 The United States begins a new covert action program in Chile and continues to fund El Mercurio January 1971 The United States authorizes support totaling $ 1.28 f r ^ r P P ^ r ^ September 1971 Nathaniel Davis becomes the U.S. ambassador to r h i i p CHRONOLOGY xiii December 1971 Chileans stage the first major protest of the Allende government, the March of the Empty Pots. January 1972 Gen. Augusto Pinochet becomes the army chief of staff. He later claims that this is when he begins plotting against Allende. March 1972 The International Telephone and Telegraph (ITT) scandal breaks in Jack Anderson's syndicated column The Washington Meny-Go-Round. June 1972 The United States publishes tlie third NIE about Chile. Aug Chilean strikes begin. Nov Allende calls his first emergency military cabinet. May 1973 The Chilean navy begins coup plotting in earnest. June 28, 1973 The Chilean army's Second Armored Regiment attempts a coup (El Tanquetazo) independently; it fails. July 15, 1973 The Committee of 15 admirals and generals decide to begin coup plotting. Aug Allende calls his second military cabinet. The CIA starts issuing periodic warnings of a coup. Aug. 7, 1973 The Chilean navy reveals a communist mutiny plot. Aug. 23, 1973 Gen. Carlos Prats resigns. Pinochet becomes army commander in chief and commits the army to the coup. Sept. 7, 1973 The coup plot, as it actually unfolded, is completed and put into operation. Sept. 8, 1973 The CIA receives its first hard intelligence on the coup. x i v H O S T I L E I N T E N T Sept. 11, 1973 Allende is overthrown. Jan. 23, 1974 The Chilean Junta issues decree law 1899, banning all political activity outright. March 1974 The CIA stops funding the PDC. INTRODUCTION: T H E C I A I N C H I L E No matter what we do it will probably end up dismal.' Secretary of State William Rogers, commenting to Kissinger about Chile, September 14, 1970 On September dential palace 1, of 1973, the Republic the Chilean of Chile, anuy La stormed Moneda, into the overthrow presi the elected leader, Salvador Allende. This was not a palace eoup, but a social upheaval of the first order, a shuddering spasm of violence and frustration and cruelty, an event that left hundreds of bodies in its path. The central act of the coup, the stonning of La Moneda, was a well-planned attack, which proceeded almost perfectly. Yet it found the ultimate target of the coup, Allende, already dead by suicide. It is a testimony to the event's emotional power that, in our cruel world, it should still be consid ered important in the United States despite happening in such an isolated and distant land, so long ago. It makes more sense when one notes that the American government had, without a doubt, a direct interest and per haps a role in what went on that day. Pivotal to this drama are the actions of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the orders it received from a series of U.S. administrations. Over the course of more than ten years, the CIA produced propaganda, manipulated the press, funded opposition groups, dealt with coup plotters and rebellious amiy officers, funded strikes, and in many other ways made life difficult for Allende, a proud Marxist, the first to gain power via the ballot box during the Cold War era. Yet debates about the extent and intent of U.S. government action in Chile remain. Did the Richard Nixon administration, most notably, try to have Allende assassinated? Did the 1
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