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Contents. Chapter 1. Food Safety and Sanitation Management. Preface...XIV



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Contents Preface...XIV Chapter 1 Food Safety and Sanitation Management New Challenges Present New Opportunities...5 Food Safety Why is it Important?...5 Why Me?...6 Changing Trends in Food Consumption
Contents Preface...XIV Chapter 1 Food Safety and Sanitation Management New Challenges Present New Opportunities...5 Food Safety Why is it Important?...5 Why Me?...6 Changing Trends in Food Consumption and Choices...7 The Problem: Foodborne disease...8 Contamination...9 Microorganisms...10 The Food Flow...11 Delivery...11 Receiving...11 Storage...11 Service...11 Facility Planning and Design...12 Keeping It Clean and Sanitary...12 A New Approach to an Old Problem...13 Accident Prevention and Crisis Management...14 Education and Training Are Key to Food Safety...15 The Role of Government in Food Safety...15 The FDA Food Code...16 The Role of the Food Industry in Food Safety...16 Food Protection Manager Certification...17 Summary...19 Quiz 1 (Multiple Choice)...20 References/Suggested Readings...21 Suggested Web Sites...21 IV Chapter 2 Hazards to Food Safety Foodborne Disease...25 Foodborne Hazards...27 Bacteria...28 Spoilage and Disease-causing Bacteria...28 Bacterial Growth...29 What Disease-causing Bacteria Need in Order to Multiply...30 Food...31 Acidity...31 Temperature...32 Time...32 Oxygen...32 Moisture...33 Time/Temperature Control for Safety Food (TCS)...34 Ready-to-Eat Foods...36 Foodborne Disease Caused by Biological Hazards...37 Sporeforming Bacteria...38 Non-sporeforming Bacteria...39 Foodborne Disease Caused by Viruses...42 Foodborne Infections Caused by Parasites...44 Foodborne Problems Caused by Chemicals...45 Naturally Occurring Chemicals...45 Food Allergens...45 Natural Toxins...47 Added Chemicals...48 Foodborne Disease Caused by Physical Hazards...49 Summary...50 Quiz 2 (Multiple Choice)...51 References/Suggested Readings...53 Suggested Web Sites...53 V Chapter 3 Factors That Affect Foodborne Disease Agents that Lead to Foodborne disease in the United States...57 Factors That Contribute to Foodborne Disease...57 What Is Temperature and Time Abuse?...59 Measuring Food Temperatures Correctly...60 When and How to Calibrate a Thermometer...63 Measuring Food Temperature...63 How to Accurately and Safely...64 Preventing Temperature and Time Abuse...64 Keep Cold Foods Cold and Hot Foods Hot!...67 Proper Thawing of Food...68 The Importance of Good Personal Hygiene and Handwashing...69 Handwashing...70 Hand Antiseptics (Hand Sanitizers)...73 Using Disposable Gloves...73 Outer Clothing and Apparel...74 Personal Habits...74 Personal Health...76 Cross Contamination...78 Other Sources of Contamination...79 Make Sure the Work Area Is Clean and Sanitary...80 Summary...81 Quiz 3 (Multiple Choice)...82 References/Suggested Readings...85 Suggested Web Sites...85 Chapter 4 Following the Flow of Food Following the Flow of Food...89 Buying from Approved Sources...89 Measuring Temperatures During Receiving, Storage and Preparation...90 VI Receiving...90 Inspecting Delivery Vehicles...90 Determining Food Quality...91 Packaged Foods...93 Reduced Oxygen Packaging (ROP)...93 Vacuum Packaging...95 Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)...95 Checking for defective cans...96 Sous vide...96 Regulations regarding Reduced Oxygen Packaging (ROP)...98 Irradiation...99 Meat Products Poultry Game Animals Eggs Milk Products Fluid milk Cheese Butter Fish and Shellfish Fruits and Vegetables Juice Frozen Foods Storage of Food Types of Storage Refrigerated Storage Freezer Storage Dry Storage Chemical Storage Preparation and Service Ingredient Substitution Thawing VII Cold-holding Refrigerators, display case and cold service bars Cold, raw TCS foods (like meat and poultry) Fish and seafood Cold, ready-to-eat TCS foods Ready-to-eat salads Frozen, Ready-to-Eat Foods Prepackaged Foods Cooking Cooling Hot-holding and Reheating Time as a Public Health Control Serving Safe Food Discarding or Reconditioning Food Refilling Returnable Containers Self-Service Bar Temporary Food Establishments and Mobile Food Establishments Prepared Foods Summary Quiz 4 (Multiple Choice) References/Suggested Readings Suggested Web Sites Chapter 5 Facilities, Equipment, and Utensils Design, Layout, and Facilities Regulatory Considerations Work Center Planning Equipment Selection Size and Design Construction Materials VIII Types of Equipment Cooking Equipment Ovens and Fryers Refrigeration and Low Temperature Storage Equipment Types of Refrigeration Reach-in Walk-in Cook-chill and Rapid-chill Systems Hot-Holding Equipment Other Types of Food Equipment Slicers Mixers, grinders, and choppers Ice machines Single-Service and Single-Use Articles Warewashing Equipment Manual Warewashing Mechanical Warewashing Devices Used to Generate Chemicals on Site Installation Maintenance and Replacement Lighting Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Summary Quiz 5 (Multiple Choice) References/Suggested Readings Suggested Web Sites Chapter 6 Cleaning and Sanitizing Operations Principles of Cleaning and Sanitizing Pre-scrape / Pre-flush to Remove Food Particles IX Application of Cleaning Agents Soaking Spray Methods Clean-in-place systems Abrasive cleaning Detergents and Cleaners to Be Used Factors that affect Cleaning Efficiency Rinsing Cleaning frequency Sanitizing Principles Heat Sanitizing Hot Water Steam Chemical Sanitizing Mechanical Warewashing Manual Warewashing Cleaning Fixed Equipment Wiping cloths Cleaning Environmental Areas Ceilings and Walls Floors Procedures for Responding to Clean Up of Vomiting and Diarrheal Events Equipment and Supplies Used for Cleaning Summary Quiz 6 (Multiple Choice) References/Suggested Readings Suggested Web Sites Chapter 7 Environmental Sanitation and Maintenance Condition of the Food Establishment Proper Water Supply and Sewage Disposal System X Condition of Building Floors, Walls, and Ceilings Walls and Ceilings Restroom Sanitation Handwashing Facilities Plumbing Hazards in Food Establishments Cross Connections and Backflow Methods and Devices to Prevent Backflow Backflow Prevention Devices on Carbonators Grease Traps Garbage and Refuse Sanitation Inside Storage Outside Storage Pest Control Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Insects Rodents Signs of Rodent Infestation Rodent Control Summary Quiz 7 (Multiple Choice) Suggested Reading/References Suggested Web Sites Chapter 8 Food Safety Management Programs The Problem The Solution The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) System Product Description and Development of the Food Flow Diagram The Seven Principles in a HACCP System Principle 1 Hazard Analysis Principle 2 Identify the critical control points (CCPs) in food preparation XI Principle 3 Establish Critical Limits (thresholds) that must be met at each identified CCP Principle 4 Establish Procedures to Monitor CCPs Principle 5 Establish the corrective action to be taken when monitoring indicates a critical limit has been exceeded Principle 6 Establish procedures to verify the HACCP system is working Principle 7 Establish an Effective Record-Keeping System that will document the HACCP system Roles and Responsibilities Under HACCP Complementary Food Safety Management Programs Food Recalls Food Safety Related Crisis Management Situations Water Supply Emergency Procedures Foodborne Disease Incident or Outbreak Bioterrorism and Food Protection Challenges of Food Safety Management Summary Quiz 8 (Multiple Choice) References/Suggested Readings Suggested Web Sites Chapter 9 Food Safety Regulations State and Local Regulations Permit to Operate Routine Inspections Inspection Provisions Federal Agencies Other Food Safety Related Organizations The Conference for Food Protection (CFP) Inspection for Wholesomeness and Grading of Food Food Labeling Safe Food-Handling Instructions Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act XII Product Dating Labels Date Marking for Ready-to-Eat, TCS Foods Consumer Advisory Recent Initiatives in Food Safety Food Safety Modernization Act National Food Safety Initiatives The Fight BAC! Campaign Summary Quiz 9 (Multiple Choice) References/Suggested Reading Suggested Web Sites Glossary Appendixes Appendix A Answers to End of Chapter Questions Appendix B The Process for Determining Potentially Hazardous Food (Time/ Temperature Control for Safety Food (TCS) Appendix C Summary of Agents That Cause Foodborne Disease Appendix D Multitiered, Risk-based Employee Health System Appendix E Conversion Table for Fahrenheit and Celsius for Common Temperatures Used in Food Establishments Appendix F Areas of Knowledge Deemed Important for the Person in Charge Appendix G Risk Designations for Food Code Provisions Appendix H Factors Affecting Cleaning and Sanitizing Index XIII
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