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71-GT-47 $2.00 PER COPY $1.00 TO ASME MEMBERS The Society shall not be responsible for statements or opinions advanced in papers or in discussion at meetings of the Society or of its Divisions or Sections,
71-GT-47 $2.00 PER COPY $1.00 TO ASME MEMBERS The Society shall not be responsible for statements or opinions advanced in papers or in discussion at meetings of the Society or of its Divisions or Sections, or printed in its publications. Discussion is printed only if the paper is published in on ASME journal or Proceedings. Released for general publication upon presentation. Full credit should be given to ASME, the Professional Division, and the author Isl. Copyright 1971 by ASME Manufacturing Approaches to Resin Matrix Composite Airfoils for Gas Turbine Engines R. A. WHITAKER W. H. REINHART C. H. CASTLE TRW Inc. Cleveland, Ohio Fan and compressor blades for gas turbine engines were identified early as potential applications for resin matrix composites. However, for these composites to reach production status, they have to be more effective than existing metal blades in both performance and cost. Graphite fiber and prepreg prices were surveyed for development and initial production price trends because composite material prices represent a significant portion of total part cost. Resin matrix composite airfoil construction is briefly described to aid in a later description of the related fabrication sequence. Manufacturing methods as currently anticipated for high volume production are discussed with regard to the fabrication sequence and effective material utilization. Quality requirements and appropriate inspec. tion methods, both dimensional and nondestructive, are briefly reviewed. Several examples of current prototype work are described as they relate to proving out certain production processing concepts. It is important to work out volume production manufacturing methods concurrent to the composite blade design and engine testing efforts because both technologies have to be available if composite blades are to be accepted for use in an advanced technology engine. Contributed by Out Gas Turbine Division of The American Society of %Irritant ica Engineers for presentation at the Gas Turbine li:ouference dc Pnaluets Show. Houston. Texas, March 28-April 1, Ma ttt iwript received at ASME Headquarters, December 21, Copies will 1w available until,irmo ary 1, THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, UNITED ENGINEERING CENTER. 345 EAST 47th STREET. NEW YORK. N.Y Manufacturing Approaches to Resin Matrix Composite Airfoils for Gas Turbine Engines R. A. WHITAKER W. H. REINHART C. H. CASTLE at ooca err hirth roctoult: graphite Ifte -s rot I riltttiri re [tit( - LI- to...0 or Thas con et Ion and e ce t ro ortittor at rrica bor. n Inc no-rtris.225 rirslore- It Ls inoortant trice troir, for rrotri-tur rro:nater IratItte to More ore otner Daterral toot: to conf Otte 2 Tu JO a61 IT oa a 017 6l uosua aut. a. Io liana.3 13 lecr!0 aad -10 ad ac aa ({0V. ai aua aortsuoa aa road -EOM :a II 1:::=snzyre 7:0 =V 0.17 F.0 TAO a ear e 03.fi. s af cal u 09. Airfoii beoeiolf lecation relatifm. to refer-. non buse plane HIGHSPEED DRUMWINCER CONSOLIDATION TABLE AND ROLLER elite eromactian or a firers blade is antler:ref. -lir pc pagam is not nweaed again for that blade Howeverr, it 1: Dr:trent:1D valectle during Dne blade type -ercloreafil. gird testing that there is nocessi- LIDA rr.ctior. or nraphite This Influencer. pc: ply thicrtness Ms tom, req.: yes 4 new set of pile. A All; fed sz to number and snaid to rill the broaafoa eons ion) itsor tee De - the pout Ire meant to sc.-ly.ledews in the -Got a ea to form the oveta 1 TO! con ted package o - pl and Ista leever root wedge. is -r en intro- -deed into the -od mol- rressase and Lerpera- As a blade mnnulleturer. B011Is major thrust Ircipii4; co make composite...i lipstion to airfoil: a rcality is in the area of HT-raved fornulactdrind. Detcor. This has been a niztople rule guano: to or eer, flop. densify,.ral then olare Der:arse the curiug operative is seem- : lished in a preolde. fre-d under hiefa nly control-led have herr, Bre use congest!. er rmblie0 of r -rials vutomtml or Teehaniz.i henfilire an ' wive- them tarm L.Afe- Libor eonte t col. lea wrth...rece, d iti. dcheric that minimize pastor cs,.nsiee rater al. rated cot - p e- After Linad cure, thp bi-fla is blended on -eading edge an- trc!flues eddes minimal-lip in- :thine. al Li; Hid root In :some oases. segonlary bonding. operaticre, are refeircl to atnoch root then urethane coat linc for prodeetion asel e far.- ' an. rain erosion Duality Darn-Q.1. as appdied la the cerrl blade awsemoly. inedaja. material trstillg. thic e ne. ssars _o - of ire ore beirkes Because of the errsarst development natftw of composite risl oils, it is also necessary Do -cal alls interim Dellapes in sane area.. Jura. to fosiliit is botl a, lb-- and desicabi to eliminate the sat ilyul of :fle a when the latrine fmtleblion stage re-ichod futrently, hoeever, with only moues Soria, out lets -nd b.ades are laid Where appropriate, :tali:tread sari:pi:jr_ will be employed In :reduction to e DTA Y blade Saa-ltS From the brl of process eeemi lotion. it tan Le seep tnat aosuratc bly shapes ann precise location lo the blaae ;motel,., re important fareors proper title labzication expellent Loci Being o-ed Oar the critical ply arafting Leek is the CAIEDMI piettel shown in Fie Input laqulled I or this tass includes: Pip 4 is a sketch of the dreproluction drys winter cum baely beiges i.s.til-wd at TRW It will rep.. ce the Dm:tilled latims ern dou nize arottgon, for develcumental end prototype nardware stall a eetip CI Embelot excellent feeribility Meth yirn and tow can bc accurately ab collimate arid impregnated moral:dation and sta0mg are nem/mini...mei on the vacuum tatle tort or in a circuiting N Megar By rratring f% Airfoil section loc /Timis relative to blade stacking ag,is its forinuiation nap 4e. eh:named, graphite volume I riction can be albustem mate:tad hdpd-eability can be varied to suit the requirement at band 4 by custom Staaing Imentory, s AtoraSe uronfem are also a:nes:ate as in-house fabrication of blades with the u flint el r-sin and reinforcement to make tne mates whicz it. identified as prepree For most desnazgmeraal and prototype hardware sade to date, plies have wen cut from brae-- roods and laid up by ham Of course, foaling aid:. and a preplanned eumenae are used to miniadze waste and seduce labor as murn as possible fade. wintaining accuracy and repeatability Cs protoaspe numbers Deceme lanyfe enough to warrant udditiznal nmolarazation, steel sole uies mounted employed OM plies will mi uorted and stacked bs yeomen or mechanical pickup dances arm highly undeslrab-e situation Mae existe Lath both developmental and initial protobype Prosuction using this broamsonas starting. material is the maerisl waste incumnd Even with A nighly tozrgantoe. layout of plies on the hromagoetu, same can amend 30 percent Piecing and tatehaq to reduce this wastee only adtin to increased lamer coraent Tape layup is certainly one So-ution to tnwe problem of labor content ane waste T. pe heads have alreasy been developed by Dame fabricators for maiming flat and swam-red composite Umbels used in aircraft applications These existing leye layers, although not directly -noncetile to blade promotion woaase of their size, co temonatrate man of 'he re m'red reatur-s AA these dirmce lapup machihes are brought into use. brzaigown an a starting nate:lad will give was to grepreg tape produced quite automatically by the cc:eel-to-tape process. Fig 5 provides a concept sketch for a computer-cent-roc-led rib:lai-axis tape laying mchine suit a ble for blade fabrication Es it envisioned, namott prepreg tape would he thustarting mm terial From a supply spool. it would be accurately laid and roller debulkcd into discrete Plies one on top of the Other Off azin - plies could also be acconaneted and the leseup calls he done on blade helves, smaller packages of plies, zr the full blade In additlen to being fully automated to minhaize labor content, the use of narrow tape would reduce waste to a respectable to 8 percent In uroduction, it sup be Weial to further debulk theo total blaae assembly aftu it has been produced by the tape mmehine Such a step Would Pemat ring the hfgh.ey conselirated blade with leading edge and other metal fittings for oneshot molding to Overall finish size In the cure cycle, sophisticated dies have been conceived that Will Work best when handling an aceurately sized predebuimed blade preform. Consistency DP the MOTION 'OFF AXIS 4_, MOTION STAC KI AXIS ROTATON ket 'PITCH MOM TAPE LAY DOWN ROLLER SHAPE OF AIRFOIL PR FORM TORE OEYELOPE PREPREG TAPE M POSITION for compuou-cont elide tasting faaohlee preform is necessauy if autonatie closure witp a irogrammed pressure Arm uemperat fun application M to De practical The proauction tows. will have zoned heat to accommodate for the variation in thickness and attendant dlfrerences in hearup rate I., al- of she manufacturite swanning ntudies, nachining ant finishing oicanbions ar e ninimal moseman faces will likely neod A finan grind to establish extremely MEnt di/tem:mora typiol of currua airfoil:. Root Dottom and ends, aloa. with the blsee lip cur:tour, also sego re come Minitram stoma.enoca- Rfalicaolon of pretuntive coatings alguecss to be a continuing requirement polyureticarms have been ased, ana such applicatimm methods as DruflauSA dipping. injection molding, and spray - ing have Wen evaluated The latter method appeals. to be most appropriate and lents itself to mechanization Automated and mechanized blade fabrication technignes are mandatory from a cost ef fective ndroi aa a bonus kart quality and process repeatability will so nuns in hand with memanization assuming, ol course, that Wen majormate:lel of constfuotion (preureg) has also progressed to the point wimre it is a consistent, olose tolerative material QUALITY CONTROL Quality control requirements nor current aircraft gas turbine blades are both specialized and quite stringent They are speolalized beause of the nighae twisted aerodynamic shape involved, ideraified by such characteristics as beam Taint, lean, and form The stringent requirements on mater ial, processing, and shape reflect the major 5 Tursine hla.m plotter specializei rol. at Sc: Jocreasod magnitude to o thrir caul 1r Th is np LCdr anipe and men loual united :tato,. I Takla: necessary addltio to an existi -a quality ta t r (I Len to mason:mane because the polt erization is an irresersible pionesa, tlo lel am Mail., haorgtt. a amp-_ 1. tam mioxito se. since it :Lauf Ina trotder traceability aompara to a horaganeo Iltanimr bll shelf -life consiamation: son, certain repairs can be rale. bht the tlaae cannot te re:truck or It t I 10Tred to make amzec- Moo.- Thc noncontnetiog computec-eontrolled devices now being developer for cheaking blales Iot 10Thz`t, range appaleatron, luzlear vo-ume alodaction, aophiaticatea {rotess co tao_ be incorromata- vitt too gh _nd eluipment Bul-t-i sensor:, set at acceptable ltzith Kt 11 [Yon compoolte olaeen he r JtVitCS, WhIZI valve light, air, or electronics as the scanning neliws. -ssist in automating inspection nol oduc irar. coat:. One example of :penal:am: equipment heed Ltt, tidttl t ee and final position can ar-o monitored and zonti011es with resaltant good size lication lay asing tight erncema coatroz. aatonatloallt recordel. certain blade guar:into:tatty: can be verlf1qt or! a sary Matted control Check:. reyalcad or. o laig percent [ion to current production lobe is in quantization of all tool: atm- gages to the aomalex slaae b. arm eagle and ritattrtd 1: uses for :ha cam. Puryore with prototype composite airfoil now being blade: mar vanes, like the graphite-epoxy vane productio:s, such La X-ray, ultrasonic. penetrant, and frequency measurement, are bolog adaasted to arum:whole the listinct difference. that ttlap05 - itts nave impose- Work tone ta date indicates that a.a of these are useful tools wit:. sorne I :Cal TX: It is equally important to Identify to tential application of new NoT concepts for a:5e the airfoil in a anown X, Y, a position bow, lean twist and form are accurately identiglel For development work. an added advallttie is the permanent record of these characteristics that is it0tuted It appear:. that, even though comeosite tities ore rather SCIllistiCatet assemblies rather than hanaddreo erg Yri and laa g ection tudialdtilues mat available Jo application at cquan tha [creased, :a iflotc.type WOOF eritimmy, the,._ tha curre mu. aitiaric is Jet:aurae itd. or ploto ta, e in natti Desig arc belma -esig n uateo Mai: aenc,mbhre, it ha', t :ten at trent:iv dm a in vibe or ce ititle_ COO( t hicali_ oar ro sor nt noces P, Oae: ea, d mml a: :au- k ud equil e co meat 101 tature F alt. to p!nation or ()Dr oolte an kilt, type Or app ace anis- atm u mime ul rotonme Ma Tor fail ugh, tilde vane., the simple:it air- -La into or 3 to : 10r is ha: irnolved, v-ist.ty of itomibiortie- 'iota, 2 Typiec pro2e - plies alto ober to prat : rei:molt orsronal 'Hess Thl, unioiract Iwo airf it I - buided 1, ic IL I -lig of the sib._ to.onirder Min ut o in 22 L. canimm is anis( ara ocir eco ablator ei Gay.his ancl caliou, since Une core ya in 00 a. tr.( f o rwl Elam lull leneth liochising :ids one tonalter explcr the otential brrh.its of aoce indium I evcantnent out on: are china in smrn elledorle do :- ore- an- cavity snit ecuri Edon, zetaind Method: resin app-leatdoe, and :Meg In: coolie- [mini:ion Tic a pialinier. a view of muo et of trade:eine option: Lelom used t.) preimi wel-did n O., uid chtted IT be 23 su Tim domd, a Mr a-e a _rho I core, a hurl er of 2 roaane av e beet e-ucea to p: satin- a re Lintel fn.-net is ii.proaaheo,.r. 0 al cauity.17 pre o, ercrluti, include. anu ao tayitie: on tem rlaiia grime whico, stead, has flab end fitihms Dui low dry winding, ene tort yarns sea bonbed too the frulne end f LC- Maw: with a rapid ael adhedive After winding, yarns are mat betweun tee franca wolch tapport 74.0 tore preeisely nerind ree in appddaallon and ut V,- in a nein orm :told Floc cores are being loeur.4 in the view :hour], how:avec, there le pro -nu:on for two aadltional set- QC 5 frame:, each to acid.al. two.deaf p.m:tuella:1 bo :Oros 70pLe of Wm verde:ions are qiite minor, but when the f.:04.1 velnine production apt: oact is to be 7 Spa bla 01 tension -soot.100aed hbatid in tunnel o 2o a self -a Hie ine-. label mily pre,sarize a nd ai ltrola earn of the t e catedelies aro_ uncoil:cane OptiOlif an be aorta 'acrid ft e tioso an t 4.1-Uatea all - flevelotonentab.0as I, to arrive ot the Stints! sequsnai 02 a given airfoil- COnf iguratr at f ran a tot, l coat coatribut I on stanapol rib or athei arees thaa provice netemsary taut: /buttons ta E44a blade matmlecture This broad effort includes: Continued materials evaluation on graphite yirn and tow, finishes, resins, adhesives, ano protective coatings Repairaoility for in-process use and ulti - mately for service refurbishment 5 Leading edge fabrication 4 Protective coating application teahnlquai Prcfleg broadgoods and tape making, advanced processing metnods, and PDT teohnique development as identified in earlier ections s It is from these diverse efforts that a final com bination or optimum processes will emerge to permit cost effective volume production of composite b.:adee. ant vanes. Peak' mat, h. torah he curf el. ase stn. 1, their -evt-opment cyc-e Poe them to be use: tri utaircea Le:dr- 010ga snaffle, they must offer clear suslormance end cost advantages, the -atter requirement means that production Most procedures be identified and developed concurrently with performance evaluation so that the total composite Ueda concept can stand on its awn 2 fraphlte warn and tow price trenos, for nigh production volumes, appear to be approaching the $25 to stoat levels after mid IWOU Cost effective production of composite. airfoils is heavily depandent upon attainment of that puha Highly automated fate co on techniques are both feasible and necessary f or oust effective composite airfoil arosuction Inaddition to reamed hoor content, in-proccon material waste minimisation and low scrap are benefito that accrue from automated techniques V Since a oomposite airfoil is actually an assembly of separate marts, quality will be highly dependant on process control In-process monitor- Lam of critical operations, coupled with otathatisumplirg of material and f Inisbad article characterimphs, dill se prominent in the ciaspoi- I.Ce production plan
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