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DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING NETWORK PROTOCOLS UNIT III(2 MARKS)

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DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING NETWORK PROTOCOLS UNIT III(2 MARKS) Network Layer Protocols: IP, IPv6, ICMP, ICMPv6, Mobile IP, OSPF, RIP, Multicasting protocols BGMP, DVMRP, IGMP, and MPLS
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DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING NETWORK PROTOCOLS UNIT III(2 MARKS) Network Layer Protocols: IP, IPv6, ICMP, ICMPv6, Mobile IP, OSPF, RIP, Multicasting protocols BGMP, DVMRP, IGMP, and MPLS protocols. 1.Write about IP The Internet Protocol (IP) is a network-layer (Layer 3 in the OSI model) protocol that contains addressing information and some control information to enable packets to be routed in a network. IP is the primary network-layer protocol in the TCP/IP protocol suite. Along with the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), IP represents the heart of the Internet protocols. IP is equally well suited for both LAN and WAN communications. 2.Write down the responsibilities of IP IP has two primary responsibilities: providing connectionless, best-effort delivery of datagram s through a network; and providing fragmentation and reassembly of datagram s to support data links with different maximum-transmission unit (MTU) sizes. 3.Draw the of IP bit Version IHL Type of service Total length Identification Flags Fragment offset Time to live Protocol Header checksum Source address Destination address Option + Padding Data 4.Write about IPv6 IPv6 is the new version of Internet Protocol (IP) based on IPv4, a network-layer (Layer 3) protocol that contains addressing information and some control information enabling packets to be routed in the network. There are two basic IP versions: IPv4 and IPv6. IPv6 is also called next generation IP or IPng. IPv4 and IPv6 are de-multiplexed at the media layer. For example, IPv6 packets are carried over Ethernet with the content type 86DD (hexadecimal) instead of IPv4 s This document describes the IPv6 details. The IPv4 is described in a separate document. P a g e 1 Network protocols 5.Draw the of IPV bit Version Priority Flow label Identification Flags Fragment offset Payload length Next header Hop limit Source address(128 bits) Destination address(128 bits) 6.Write about ICMP & ICMPv6 Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is an integrated part of the IP suite. ICMP messages, delivered in IP packets, are used for out-of-band messages related to network operation or mis-operation. ICMP packet delivery is unreliable, so hosts can t count on receiving ICMP packets for any network problems. The key ICMP functions are: 7.Draw the of ICMP bit Type Code Checksum Identifier Sequence number Address mask 8.Write about Mobile IP Mobile IP is the key protocol to enable mobile computing and networking, which brings together two of the world s most powerful technologies, the Internet and mobile communication. In Mobile IP, two IP addresses are provided for each computer: home IP address which is fixed and care-of IP address which is changing as the computer moves. When the mobile moves to a new location, it must send its new address to an agent at home so that the agent can tunnel all communications to its new address timely. 9.draw the Mobile IP Functional Flow Chart P a g e 2 Network protocols 10.List out the features of mobile IPV4 and Mobile IPV6 Key Features Mobile IPv4 Mobile IPv6 Special router as foreign agent Yes No Support for route optimization Part of the protocol In Extensions Ensure symmetric reachability between mobile No Yes nodes and its router at current location Routing bandwidth overhead More Less Decouple from Link Layer No Yes Need to manage Tunnel soft state Yes No Dynamic home agent address discovery No Yes 11. Draw the Protocol header Structure of Mobility IPv bit Next Header Length Type Reserved Checksum Data 12.Write about OSPF Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is an interior gateway protocol which is used for routing between routers belonging to a single Autonomous System. OSPF uses link-state technology in which routers send each other information about the direct connections and links which they have to other routers. Each OSPF router maintains an identical database describing the Autonomous System s topology. From this database, a routing table is calculated by constructing a shortest- path tree. OSPF recalculates routes quickly in the face of topological changes, utilizing a minimum of routing protocol traffic. OSPF provides support for equal-cost multi-path. An area routing capability is provided, enabling an additional level of routing protection and a reduction in routing protocol traffic. In addition, all OSPF routing protocol exchanges are authenticated. 13.Draw the of OSPF 14.Write about RIP Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a standard for exchange of routing information among gateways and hosts. This protocol is most useful as an interior gateway protocol. In a nationwide network such as the current Internet, there are many routing protocols used for the whole network. The network will be organized as a collection of autonomous systems. Each autonomous system will have its own routing technology, which may well be different for different autonomous systems. The routing protocol used within an autonomous system is referred to as an interior gateway protocol, or IGP. A separate protocol is used to interface among the autonomous systems. The earliest such protocol, still used in the Internet, is EGP P a g e 3 Network protocols (exterior gateway protocol). Such protocols are now usually referred to as inter-as routing protocols. RIP is designed to work with moderate-size networks using reasonably homogeneous technology. Thus it is suitable as an IGP for many campuses and for regional networks using serial lines whose speeds do not vary widely. It is not intended for use in more complex environments. 15.Draw the of RIP 16. Write about BGMP Border Gateway Multicast Protocol (BGMP) is a protocol for inter- domain multicast routing. BGMP natively supports source specific multicast (SSM). To also support any-source multicast (ASM), BGMP builds shared trees for active multicast groups, and allows domains to build source-specific, inter-domain, distribution branches where needed. Building upon concepts from PIM-SM and CBT, BGMP requires that each global multicast group be associated with a single root. However, in BGMP, the root is an entire exchange or domain, rather than a single router. 17. Draw the of BGMP bit Length Type Reserved 18. Write about DVMRP Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP) is an Internet routing protocol that provides an efficient mechanism for connectionless message multicast to a group of hosts across an internetwork. DVMRP is an interior gateway protocol (IGP); suitable for use within an autonomous system, but not between different autonomous systems. DVMRP is not currently developed for use in routing non-multicast datagram s, so a router that routes both multicast and unicast datagram s must run two separate routing processes. 19.Draw the of DVMRP bit Version Type Sub-type Checksum DVMRP Data stream P a g e 4 Network protocols 20.Write about IGMP Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP), a multicasting protocol in the internet protocols family, is used by IP hosts to report their host group memberships to any immediately neighboring multicast routers. IGMP messages are encapsulated in IP datagrams, with an IP protocol number of 2. IGMP has versions IGMP v1, v2 and v3. 21.List out the variant protocols of IGMP DVMRP: Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol. IGAP: IGMP for user Authentication Protocol. RGMP: Router-port Group Management Protocol. 22.Draw the of IGMP bit Type Max response time Checksum Group address RSV S QRV QQIC Number of source Source Address (1) Source Address (N) 23.Write about MPLS Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS), an architecture for fast packet switching and routing, provides the designation, routing, forwarding and switching of traffic flows through the network. More specifically, it has mechanisms to manage traffic flows of various granularities. It is independent of the layer-2 and layer-3 protocols such as ATM and IP. It provides a means to map IP addresses to simple, fixed-length labels used by different packet forwarding and packet-switching technologies. It interfaces to existing routing and switching protocols, such as IP, ATM, Frame Relay, Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), etc. 24.Draw the MPLS label structure bit Label Exp S TTL P a g e 5 Network protocols 11 Marks 1. Explain in detail about Internet Protocol in detail? The Internet Protocol (IP) is a network-layer (Layer 3 in the OSI model) protocol that contains addressing information and some control information to enable packets to be routed in a network. IP is the primary network-layer protocol in the TCP/IP protocol suite. Along with the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), IP represents the heart of the Internet protocols. IP is equally well suited for both LAN and WAN communications. IP has two primary responsibilities: providing connectionless, best-effort delivery of datagram s through a network; and providing fragmentation and reassembly of datagram s to support data links with different maximum-transmission unit (MTU) sizes. The IP addressing scheme is integral to the process of routing IP datagram s through an internetwork. Each IP address has specific components and follows a basic format. These IP addresses can be subdivided and used to create addresses for subnetworks. Each computer (known as a host) on a TCP/IP network is assigned a unique 32-bit logical address that is divided into two main parts: the network number and the host number. The network number identifies a network and must be assigned by the Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC) if the network is to be part of the Internet. An Internet Service Provider (ISP) can obtain blocks of network addresses from the InterNIC and can itself assign address space as necessary. The host number identifies a host on a network and is assigned by the local network administrator. When you send or receive data (for example, an note or a Web page), the message gets divided into little chunks called packets. Each of these packets contains both the sender s Internet address and the receiver s address. Because a message is divided into a number of packets, each packet can, if necessary, be sent by a different route across the Internet. Packets can arrive in a different order than the order they were sent in. The Internet Protocol just delivers them. It s up to another protocol, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) to put them back in the right order. All other protocols within the TCP/IP suite, except ARP and RARP, use IP to route frames from host to host. There are two basic IP versions, IPv4 and IPv6. This document describes the IPv4 details. The IPv6 details are described in a separate document bit Version IHL Type of service Total length Identification Flags Fragment offset Time to live Protocol Header checksum Source address Destination address Option + Padding Data Version 4-bit field indicates the version of IP currently used. IP Header Length (IHL) - is the datagram header length in 32-bit words. Points to the beginning of the data. The minimum value for a correct header is 5. Type-of-Service indicates the quality of service desired by specifying how an upper-layer protocol would like a current datagram to be handled, and assigns datagram s various levels of importance. These 8 bits fields are used for the assignment of Precedence, Delay, Throughput and Reliability. P a g e 6 Network protocols Total Length specifies the length, in bytes, of the entire IP packet, including the data and header. The maximum length which can be specified by this field is 65,535 bytes. Typically, hosts are prepared to accept datagram s up to 576 bytes. Identification contains an integer that identifies the current datagram. This field is assigned by sender to help receiver to assemble the datagram fragments. Flags - consists of a 3-bit field of which the two low order (least-significant) bits control fragmentation. The low-order bit specifies whether the packet can be fragmented. The middle bit specifies whether the packet is the last fragment in a series of fragmented packets. The third or high-order bit is not used. Fragment Offset - This 13-bits field indicates the position of the fragment s data relative to the beginning of the data in the original datagram, which allows the destination IP process to properly reconstruct the original datagram. Time-to-Live - is a counter that gradually decrements down to zero, at which point the datagram is discarded. This keeps packets from looping endlessly. Protocol - indicates which upper-layer protocol receives incoming packets after IP processing is complete. Header Checksum helps ensure IP header integrity. Since some header fields change, e.g., Time to Live, this is recomputed and verified at each point the Internet header is processed. Source Address specifies the sending node. Destination Address specifies the receiving node. Options allows IP to support various options, such as security. Data contains upper-layer information. 2. Explain in detail about Internet Protocol version 6(11 marks) IPv6 is the new version of Internet Protocol (IP) based on IPv4, a network-layer (Layer 3) protocol that contains addressing information and some control information enabling packets to be routed in the network. There are two basic IP versions: IPv4 and IPv6. IPv6 is also called next generation IP or IPng. IPv4 and IPv6 are de-multiplexed at the media layer. For example, IPv6 packets are carried over Ethernet with the content type 86DD (hexadecimal) instead of IPv4 s This document describes the IPv6 details. The IPv4 is described in a separate document. IPv6 increases the IP address size from 32 bits to 128 bits, to support more levels of addressing hierarchy, a much greater number of addressable nodes and simpler auto-configuration of addresses. IPv6 addresses are expressed in hexadecimal format (base 16) which allows not only numerals (0-9) but a few characters as well (a-f). A sample ipv6 address looks like:3ffe:ffff:100:f101:210:a4ff:fee3:9566. Scalability of multicast addresses is introduced. A new type of address called an anycast address is also defined, to send a packet to any one of a group of nodes. Two major improvements in IPv6 vs. v4: Improved support for extensions and options - IPv6 options are placed in separate headers that are located between the IPv6 header and the transport layer header. Changes in the way IP header options are encoded allow more efficient forwarding, less stringent limits on the length of options, and greater flexibility for introducing new options in the future. The extension headers are: Hop-by-Hop Option, Routing (Type 0), Fragment, Destination Option, Authentication, and Encapsulation Payload. Flow labeling capability - A new capability has been added to enable the labeling of packets belonging to particular traffic flows for which the sender requests special handling, such as non-default Quality of Service or real time service bit Version Priority Flow label P a g e 7 Network protocols Identification Flags Fragment offset Payload length Next header Hop limit Source address(128 bits) Destination address(128 bits) Version 4-bit Internet Protocol Version number (IPv6 is 6). Priority -- 8-bit traffic class field enables a source to identify the desired delivery priority of the packets. Priority values are divided into ranges: traffic where the source provides congestion control and noncongestion control traffic. Flow label bit flow label is used by a source to label those products for which it requests special handling by the IPv6 router. The flow is uniquely identified by the combination of a source address and a nonzero flow label. Payload length bit integer in octets is the length of payload including header. Next header 8-bit selector identifies the type of header immediately following the IPv6 header. Hop limit -- 8-bit integer that is decremented by one by each node that forwards the packet. The packet is discarded if the Hop Limit is decremented to zero. Source address bit address of the originator of the packet. Destination address bit address of the intended recipient of the packet (possibly not the ultimate recipient, if a Routing header is present). 3. Explain in detail about Internet Message Control Protocol and ICMP version 6(6marks) Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is an integrated part of the IP suite. ICMP messages, delivered in IP packets, are used for out-of-band messages related to network operation or mis-operation. ICMP packet delivery is unreliable, so hosts can t count on receiving ICMP packets for any network problems. The key ICMP functions are: Announce network errors, such as a host or entire portion of the network being unreachable, due to some type of failure. A TCP or UDP packet directed at a port number with no receiver attached is also reported via ICMP. Announce network congestion. When a router begins buffering too many packets, due to an inability to transmit them as fast as they are being received, it will generate ICMP Source Quench messages. Directed at the sender, these messages should cause the rate of packet transmission to be slowed. Of course, generating too many Source Quench messages would cause even more network congestion, so they are used sparingly. Assist Troubleshooting. ICMP supports an Echo function, which just sends a packet on a round--trip between two hosts. Ping, a common network management tool, is based on this feature. Ping will transmit a series of packets, measuring average round--trip times and computing loss percentages. Announce Timeouts. If an IP packet s TTL field drops to zero, the router discarding the packet will often generate an ICMP packet announcing this fact. Trace Route is a tool which maps network routes by sending packets with small TTL values and watching the ICMP timeout announcements. The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) was revised during the definition of IPv6. In addition, the multicast control functions of the IPv4 Group Membership Protocol (IGMP) are now incorporated in the ICMPv bit Type Code Checksum Identifier Sequence number Address mask P a g e 8 Network protocols Type -- Messages can be error or informational messages. Error messages can be Destination unreachable, Packet too big, Time exceed, Parameter problem. The possible informational messages are, Echo Request, Echo Reply, Group Membership Query, Group Membership Report, and Group Membership Reduction. Code -- For each type of message several different codes are defined. An example of this is the Destination Unreachable message, where possible messages are: no route to destination, communication with destination administratively prohibited, not a neighbor, address unreachable, port unreachable. For further details, refer to the standard. Checksum -- The 16-bit one s complement of the one s complement sum of the ICMP message starting with the ICMP Type. For computing the checksum, the checksum field should be zero. Identifier -- An identifier to aid in matching requests/ replies; may be zero. Sequence number -- Sequence number to aid in matching requests/replies; may be zero. Address mask -- A 32-bit mask. 4. Write in detail IP Mobility Support Protocol for IPv4 & IPv6(6 marks) Mobile IP is the key protocol to enable mobile computing and networking, which brings together two of the world s most powerful technologies, the Internet and mobile communication. In Mobile IP, two IP addresses are provided for each computer: home IP address which is fixed and care-of IP address which is changing as the computer moves. When the mobile moves to a new location, it must send its new address to an agent at home so that the agent can tunnel all communications to its new address timely. The main components defined in the Mobile IPv6 architecture are shown as follows: Mobile node A mobile unit that can change links, and therefore addresses, and maintain reachability using its home address. Home link - The link from wh
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