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Detailed analysis of inverter linear control loops design

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This paper thoroughly analyzes various linear control loop designs of DC-AC inverters. First, the PI and P+Resonant controllers for current mode of operation are investigated. Then a detailed analysis of the various inverter control techniques for
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    Detailed Analysis of Inverter Linear ControlLoops Design Ali Maknouninejad Nasser Kutkut Issa Batarseh Zhihua Qu Ehab Shoubaki University of Central Florida Petra Solar Inc.Orlando, Florida, USA South Plainfield, NJ alimaknouni@gmail.com nhkutkut@gmail.com batarseh@mail.ucf.edu qu@eecs.ucf.edu Ehab.Shoubaki@petrasolar.com Abstract-  This paper will thoroughly analyze various linear controlloop designs of DC-AC inverters. First, the PI and P+Resonantcontrollers for current mode of operation will be investigated. Thena detailed analysis of the various inverter control techniques for voltage mode operation will be performed and the most promisingtechnique will be further analyzed. Finally simulation andexperimental results will be presented. I.   Introduction PI controllers have been widely used in power conversion applications due to their very good performance,especially in AC-DC and DC-DC power conversionapplications, while P+Resonant (P+R) controllers have been proposed as their counter parts in DC-AC inverter applications [1], [2]. However, a detailed analysis and performance comparison between PI and P+R controllers isstill missing.In this paper a detailed study of various linear controldesigns for DC-AC inverters will be performed. Theanalysis will cover the single loop grid-tie current modeoperation and will provide a detailed comparison betweenthe PI and P+R controllers. In addition, the micro-gridvoltage mode operation will be also analyzed, where the best choice of controller loop design will be presented. Amain contribution of this paper is the analysis of the controlloop design in voltage mode and the right choice of theinternal loop controller, which is missing in the literature.The analysis will be performed based on a 200W microinverter with proposed system parameters shown in Fig. 1.The main design criteria used in the analysis include:    An overall control loop bandwidth of 10%-20% of theswitching frequency, namely 2-4kHz.    Low steady state error     Fast transient response    Minimal overshoot II.   Single loop current mode inverter control In grid-tie mode, inverters operate as a current sourceand a single current loop is typically employed to regulatethe current injected into the grid. The block diagram of theinverter current mode controller is shown in Fig. 2. Theoutput to input current transfer function is given by,                 –         (1)  AC DC Bus   System ParametersPower levelGrid voltageDC bus voltageSwitching frequencyOutput filter inductor Output filter capacitor 200W120V rms, 60Hz250V20kHz4mH2.2  F Fig. 1 inverter and system parametersThis work is partially supported by the US Department of Energyunder the Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) program.  G 2  LS  1 K i I * i L ++-- Current sensor gaininner loopcontroller Output filter inductor  K PWM Gain Grid   Fig. 2 Current mode inverter model A.   PI & P+R Performance Comparison The PI and P+Resonant controllers transfer function,G 2PI and G 2PR  , are given below [3]:          ,                     (2)  
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