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EcoHealth 2014 Connections for Health, Ecosystems and Society


Government & Politics

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P2B Poster session, Aug 14, 12 :30-14 :00 P2.31: Health Risk Assessment Of Water Sold In Plastic Bags In The City Of Abidjan (Cote D'Ivoire, West Africa) Kouame Kouadio, Institut Pasteur of Côte d'ivoire,
P2B Poster session, Aug 14, 12 :30-14 :00 P2.31: Health Risk Assessment Of Water Sold In Plastic Bags In The City Of Abidjan (Cote D'Ivoire, West Africa) Kouame Kouadio, Institut Pasteur of Côte d'ivoire, Côte d'ivoire Justification: Water is important because of the role that it plays in our daily life. Since 2000, Water sold in plastic bags has increased in Côte d Ivoire particularly in Abidjan. Objectives: For the important role that it plays, we decided to assess the risk that water sold in plastic bags may cause in the health of the consumers. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at the Pasteur Institute of Abidjan in Cote d Ivoire from October 2003 to May bags were involved in the study in which, 450 home made bags and 450 semi- industrial bags. Results: The result showed that 89.6% of the sellers were doing these activities for more than six months. 69.8% of them were women. 79.3% of those women have a primary education level. Also, concerning the mode of conditioning the plastic bags, the individuals and environmental hygiene were some of the risk factors associated in this study. The ph of the 900 samples showed an average of 7.20; which was acceptable. The non conformity of the semi- industrial bags was 21.3% and 26% for the home made bags. 5.4% of the home made bags contained bacteria, whereas 3.3% of semi- industrial bags contained them. Enterococcus faecalis represented 91.6% (76 cases), Escherichia coli 7.2% (06 cases), and Salmonella spp 1.2% (01 case). We can conclude that the water whether it is semi industrial or homemade should not be consumed in Abidjan because of the high presence of bacteria (79.4%). P2.32: Spatial Analysis Of Topography And River Watershed Factors For Leptospirosis Cases In Kulon Progo, Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia Dyah Ayu Widiasih, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia; Wayan T Artama, Gadjah Mada University; Adi Heru Sutomo, Gadjah Mada University; Tjut Sugandawaty Djohan, Gadjah Mada University; Fred Unger, International Livestock Research Institute This study, which was part of the ILRI/IDRC EcoHealth project, was conducted to reveal epidemiological analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of Leptospirosis in Kulon Progo District, Yogyakarta Province based on the topography and river watershed in those areas to explore the geographical influences in the dissemination of zoonotic diseases and support disease modeling. The study was carried out by tracing back to 54 positive results of MAT from cattle sera collected in a previous survey which focused on risk factors. The distribution of Leptospira serovars were plotted using ArcGIS 9.3 map software. This tool analyzed dissemination of leptospira serovars among the land altitude and river watershed. Result showed that Leptospira sp. was disseminated in 12 subdistricts in Kulon Progo district with eight serovars finally identified. This bacterium was spread almost overall the low land altitude with stream tributary branches across the regions from the high land altitude. Leptospira serovar Hardjo and L. ser. Icterohaemorragicae were widely identified in high to low land altitude of the sub villages in Kulon Progo District. Meanwhile, other serovars such as L. ser. Pomona and Rahmadie were mainly identified in high land altitude areas. Conversely L. ser. Tarassovi was only identified in the low land altitude area. The remaining identified serovars, Celledoni, Bataviae and Javanicae varied less in their distribution, reported only for some areas. From the findings, the use of a geographic information system provided a visual presentation when synthesized with the results of previous studies. This resulted in a more beneficial mapping and modeling of the diseases. Therefore spatial analysis based on topography and rivers watershed contributed to a better integrated understanding of disease emergence and is the basis for a more effective control and efficient addressing of public health concerns. P2.33: Flood and food as potential carriers of health risk agents between urban and rural lives: A case in central Vietnam Toru Watanabe, Yamagata University, Japan; Yuki Takada, Yamagata University; Kazuya Watanabe, Yamagata University; Duong Van Hieu, Hue University; Pham Khac Lieu, Hue University Urban flooding poses risk of communicable and non- comunicable diseases to dwellers because they frequently expose to floodwater which is easily contaminated with a variety of contaminants orginated from urban drainage. The floodwater finally flow out from the urban area and reach to the downstream, bringing various contaminants. The priority in the flood management is usually put on the protection of dwellers and treasures in the urban area and therefore the floodwater is discharged or pumped out to the surrounding rural area as quickly as possible. Usually a large part of the rural area is used as agricultural field to produce fresh foods for urban dwellers. If such an agricultural field is covered by floodwater from the urban area, the field must be contaminated and the foods cultivated there may threaten human health in the urban area. In this sense, flood and food are potential carriers of contaminants, or health risk agents, between urban and rural areas. The present study is a case- study conducted in Hue, central Vietnam, to evaluate the potential of risk transfer between Hue city and surrounding rural area. We performed the field surveys on contaminations of soil and leaf vegetable (lettuce) at 33 farms of four rural villages in August (before flood season) and December (after flood season) It revealed that the seasonal flood from the city was a key factor of soil contamination with fecal indicator bacteria, although such a flood- induced contamination was not observed in vegetable samples. The relationship between agricultural soil and vegetable contaminations is still unknown and of our interest. We also found a channel of distribution of the vegetable from the flood- affected farms to consumers in the urban area and finally assessed their risk of infection due to contaminated fresh vegetables. P2.34: Climate Change, Ecohealth and Watersheds Nathalie Abrahams, Grupo Epidemiología y Salud Poblacional- Universidad del Valle, Colombia; Daniel Cuartas, Universidad del Valle; Diana caicedo, Universidad del Valle; Camilo Salcedo Jiménez, Epidemiology and Population Health Group - GESP; Fabian Mendez, Universidad del Valle Ecohealth approach requires a systemic view of problems, but sometimes these view are not possible in pre established territories like municipalities or departments (administrative division similar to state), due to boundaries that divides natural systems in which humans and other species participate and interact. Despite climate change is a global issue, its impact needs to be assessed at local level to design particular adaptation strategies. We assess different levels of territories (study area) to select the best option for evaluating climate change impact in two health effects (dengue and acute diarrheal diseases). Three geographical/political areas were selected for assessment: municipal, departmental, and watershed. a matrix were designed for characterization of information source and its geographical level. Data required for exposure and health effects was: meteorological, hydrological, land use or coverage, aedic indexes, microbiological indicators in water. Three department, 41 municipalities and the 1 watershed were included in the assessment. Exposure data was available at watershed, departmental and municipal levels, but health effects was only available at departmental and in some municipalities. Changes in water cycle are evident in the watershed: intensity of precipitation, distribution of seasons and temperature, and although there are other factors than climate change affecting water cycle, such as land use changes, all these elements configure a spiral cycle of causes- effects- causes that not happens in the boundaries of a municipality or a department or even at watershed but it can be assessed much better at the later level. Use of watershed as a spatial analysis unit and ecohealth as research approach contribute to a better understanding of climate change impacts in the territory. P2.35: Using heat stress maps to predict increased emergency room visits in rural Southern Ontario ( ) Katherine Bishop- Williams, University of Guelph, Canada; Olaf Berke, University of Guelph; David Pearl, University of Guelph; David Kelton, University of Guelph In Southern Ontario, climate change gave rise to an increasing occurrence of heat waves, causing heat stress to the general public, with potentially fatal consequences. Heat waves are defined as three consecutive days with temperatures of 32 C and above. Heat stress is the level of discomfort. Heat stress indices measure heat stress, e.g. the heat stress index (HSI) is based on temperature and humidity, indicating serious health impacts above a level of 70 units. Maps visualizing the distribution of heat stress can provide information about related health risks and insight for control strategies. Information to inform heat wave preparedness models in Ontario was previously only available for major metropolitan areas. Hospitals in communities of fewer than 100,000 individuals were recruited for a pilot study by telephone. The number of people visiting the emergency room or 24- hour urgent care service was collected for 27 days, including three heat waves and six 3 day control periods from The heat stress index was estimated using data from 37 weather stations, and subsequently interpolated across Southern Ontario by geostatistical kriging. Ordinary logistic regression modeling was applied to determine the odds of increased emergency room visits in a rural hospital with respect to the HSI. When the HSI exceeded a threshold value of 70 units, the odds of emergency room visits doubled (OR = 2.08, CI95%= , p = 0.04). This finding will aid hospitals and rural local public health units in preparing for emergencies during heat waves. Future research is needed to assess the relation between heat stress and individual characteristics and demographics of rural communities in Ontario. P2.36: Examining Health Impact of cold weather using remotely sensed data: A case study of Dhaka, Bangladesh Shinya Yasumoto, University of Tokyo, Japan; Ayesha Kabir, University of Tokyo; Kei Oyoshi, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA); Chiho Watanabe, University of Tokyo Asthma is widely recognised as a major chronic respiratory disease and the prevalence of asthma is associated with cold weather. To observe the effect of cold weather, air temperature data provided by meteorological stations is often used, but limitation is that meteorological stations tend to be only situated in sparsely inhabited locations. It may provide discrete and partial representation of temperature, and thus biases to evaluate the public health risks. More recently land surface temperature (LST) data deprived from satellite images became publically available. The LST data covers larger spatial coverage and its geographical resolution is smaller than the station data. Nevertheless, limited research has employed this data to test the relationship between exposure to cold weather and asthma prevalence. Although Bangladesh is located in sub- tropical area, cold weather is concerned as a trigger of asthma prevalence due to the poor qualities of heating systems and health cares in the country. By conducting a case study on Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh, this research examined the relationship between the two indicators of exposure to cold weather (i.e. air temperature data from stations and LST data) and number of asthma visits (as health outcome). The data on the number of out- patient visits due to asthma was collected in the National Asthma Centre in Dhaka through questionnaire survey. We also examine which indicator better predict asthma prevalence in the sample area. As a result, we found that air temperature was negatively associated with asthma visits. It was found that 1 degree decrease in minimum air temperature was associated with 2% increase in the visits of asthma patient. The health effect of LST will be also reported. P2.37: Direct evidence of chemical contamination of Anopheles gambiae s.l. breeding sites underlying the selection of pyrethroid resistance in cotton growing areas revealed by HPLC: potential impact on the efficacy of vector control tools in Burkina Faso Roch Dabiré, IRSS/Centre Muraz, Burkina Faso Since the detection of the first case of Anopheles gambiae resistance to pyrethroid recorded in Ivory Coast in 1993, several studies had reported the role of agriculture in the selection and the spread of pyrethroid resistance in natural populations of An. gambiae s.l. Unfortunately no direct evidence was reported enhancing the presence of chemicals in anopheline breeding sites. It is what we addressed in the current study performed in Dano, a cotton growing area located in the South West of Burkina Faso by monitoring the insecticide content both in water and sediments sampled from randomly selected breeding sites using GC analysis from August to October The resistance status of local populations of An. gambiae s.l. was estimated using standard WHO tube assays. Early in August some herbicides as Diouron were detected from the soil residue in concentrations ranged from 22,63 to 105,5 mg/kg of soil without any insecticide in the water. In October two pyethroids namely lambacyalothrin and deltamethrin were found in the breeding water at concentrations ranging from 0,0147 μg/l to 1,49 μg/l together with other chemicals occurring in very low concentration from the soil residue (benzoypropenyl, dioxacarb, chloroneb). A reduced mortality rate was observed both with deltamethrin 0,05% and bendiocarb 0,1% reaching 52,04% and 66,67% respectively. High kdr allele frequencies reaching 0,95 and 0.4 respectively for 1014F and 1014S alleles and 0,12 for the ace- 1 allele accompanied this strength resistance phenotype. Data on the efficacy of long lasting insecticide treated bednets (LLINs) in use in the region obtained by WHO cone test, showed mortality rates ranged from 10% to 83% depending to the type of LLIN. The significance and the impact of such resistance on the efficacy of malaria vector control strategy in short and long terms were discussed. P2.40: Biomarkers in environment health impacts assessment. Applying the Ecohealth approach in Uruguay Nelly Manay, Faculty of Chemistry, Uruguay; Adriana Cousillas, University of the Republic; Cristina Alvarez, Faculty of Chemistry - Universidad de la Republica; Teresa Heller, Faculty of Chemistry - Universidad de la Republica The Ecohealth emerging study field requires the contributions of Public Health sectors in order to address regional transdisciplinary actions with a global perspective. However, capabilities and resources are not always sufficiently developed for national implementation of global strategies. Human biomonitoring data in public health risk assessment play an important role in establishing relationships between a specific human health effect and a given chemical exposure. Animals can also suffer from diseases owing to element deficiency or toxicity, and may even develop early serious health problems before they occur in humans. This study highlights the importance of developing locally available analytical tools for appropriate biomarkers to asses human environmental exposure to trace elements and toxic chemical pollutants. It also applies to sensitive living species in the ecosystems. The focus is on the integration of multidisciplinary knowledge and transdisciplinary thinking towards the benefit of community heath, ecosystems and the Uruguayan society. Lead is an example of a well known environmental toxic chemical pollutant that can be absorbed and cause adverse health effects on susceptible living organisms. Children s neurodevelopment can be affected by lead contribution even at low levels of exposure. In Uruguay, this environmental problem became of public concern on Lead in whole blood (B- Pb, BLL) is the internationally recommended biomarker for lead screening, biomonitoring and diagnostic purposes. Uruguayan human populations (infants, children, adults, workers) lead studies were conducted to show the incidence of different variables on B- Pb. Then, health benefits of medical intervention, nutrition, regulations and environmental education were demonstrated by a statistically significant decrease of their B- Pb. Biomarkers for other metals (arsenic, zinc, mercury, chromium, cadmium) used in health impacts assessment studies, and in ongoing projects in Uruguay, are also described to show the relevance of this practice for the consolidation of the Ecohealth approach at a local level. P2.41: Assessing saliva as a biomarker of manganese exposure in children exposed through well- water Ruth Ntihabose, Université de Moncton, Canada; Céline Surette, Université de Moncton; Delphine Foucher, Université de Moncton; Maryse Bouchard, Université de Montréal Several regions in Canada and elsewhere around the world have naturally high concentrations of manganese (Mn) in groundwater. Recent studies have shown an association between Mn in drinking water and neurotoxic effects on children at levels much lower than the World Health Organization s guideline (0.4 mg/l) suggesting that the later might not be sufficiently protective. However, currently available scientific data are insufficient to develop a health- based guideline for Mn in drinking water. One of the main goal of our study is to assess saliva as a biomarker of Mn exposure from well- water for children 6 to 12 years old. With the collaboration of local schools and municipalities, we have assembled a group of 280 voluntary children living in New Brunswick where more than 60% of the population are drinking well- water. Information about water intake was collected by administering questionnaires. In parallel, saliva and sources of drinking water were sampled and analysed for Mn concentration. Water samples collected in the households showed a gradient of Mn levels ranging up to 0.7 mg/l. Approximately 23% of the children studied were exposed to drinking water exceeding the recommended organoleptic standard of 0.05 mg/l established in New Brunswick. Four percent among them were exposed to water with Mn levels above the WHO guideline. In this work, the potential for saliva as a Mn exposure biomarker was assessed by evaluating the relationship between Mn concentration in drinking water, Mn intake, and Mn concentrations in saliva. Based on our results, we will work with the New Brunswick government to improve health and well- being of children relative to their exposure to Mn through drinking water, and consequently bring risk assessors a step forward to establish a health- based standard guideline for Mn in drinking water in Canada. P2.42: Using Blood Spots to Assess Heavy Metal Exposure in Humans and Wildlife Marie Perkins, McGill University, Canada; Niladri Basu, McGill University Evaluating heavy metal contaminant exposure can be an important metric for assessing human, wildlife, and ecosystem health. Blood samples can provide a good measure of recent dietary exposure to heavy metals. However, current blood collection and storage methods can be difficult and costly, particularly at resource- limited locations. Collecting blood on specialized filter paper (blood spots) is an innovative method for sampling human and wildlife blood to evaluate contaminant exposure. The development of a common sampling method for humans and wildlife provides a broad application for assessing ecosystem health. The use of blood spots may reduce many of the current challenges faced by environmental contaminant researchers. They offer an easy, widely accessible, and cost- effective method
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