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Fourth Quarter: Final Exam Review Answer Key Ch. 16, 17, and 19.2-Evolution PDF

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Fourth Quarter: Final Exam Review Answer Key Ch. 16, 17, and 19.2-Evolution 16.1 A) Explain/Describe the role Darwin played in understanding evolution via the mechanism of natural selection with regards
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Fourth Quarter: Final Exam Review Answer Key Ch. 16, 17, and 19.2-Evolution 16.1 A) Explain/Describe the role Darwin played in understanding evolution via the mechanism of natural selection with regards to the Galápagos finches. Darwin traveled to the Galapagos Islands where he found different finches on each of the islands that were similar to the finches from South America but still very different. Each of the islands had a different set of finches in terms of their beak shape/size. What he came to see later was that the finches with certain characteristics were better fit to survive in their specific islands environment. Therefore their beak structure became the dominant characteristic A) Describe Lamarck s understanding of evolution ( use or disuse and acquired Characteristics in one s lifetime are passed onto the next generation). Lamarck understood that something was being passed on to further generations in order to make animals perfect for their environment. However he was the first to talk about this and his thoughts were that if an animal changed something about themselves during their lifetime then it would be passed on to their offspring (broken wings, things that are not genetic). He was right that something was passed on but where he went wrong is that the only heritable items can be passed on from parents to offspring. So a broken wing in the parent doesn t mean that the offspring will have unusable wings. B) Explain Lyell and Hutton s ideas with regards to the Earth s age and uniformitarianism. Lyell and Hutton believed that there was a uniform process occurring in the earth where landforms were being created in a cycle pattern that took incredibly long periods of time to complete. They noticed that the processes were very uniform (mountain building, rivers, etc.) no matter where you looked around the world. C) Explain Malthus ideas with regards to overcrowding in the human population. Malthus worked in England looking at population overcrowding in cities. He understood that there is only so much space/resources and when that runs out there will have to be those that are left without. He believed there needed to be a system of checks and balances that keep the population stable. He promoted for people to think more before having children, and also said that death was a necessary evil to balance the population A) Explain why natural selection is not just survival of the fittest, but also reproducing and passing genes onto the next generation. *Define natural selection. Natural selection can only occur when: (1) more of an organism are born than can survive, (2) individuals vary in a heritable trait, and (3) One of the variations has a higher fitness in their current environment. B) List Darwin s 4 main ideas. 1) Struggle for existence: Organisms produce more offspring than can survive. 2) There is variation in nature, and certain heritable variations called adaptations increase an individual s chance of surviving and reproducing. 3) Survival of the fittest: Those with the highest fitness for their current environment will have a higher rate of survival and offspring. 4) Natural Selection: One heritable variation will become more common over time of the three steps from the previous question are met. C) Describe Wallace s role in understanding evolution. Wallace was about to put out an essay on evolution before Darwin and would have received all of the credit. So after waiting almost 20 years to publish Darwin decided to get his work out before Wallace to make sure he got all the credit for his work A) Is evolution a fact or a belief? Explain how Evolution is a fact: the mechanism of how organisms change over time is the theory. It is a known fact that over time things change, but it is the how they change that makes it is a theory. B) Define what a theory means to science (it is testable / falsifiable) and list other examples of scientific theories. A theory is a scientific hypothesis with large bodies of evidence behind it, but is testable and falsifiable. Theory of endosymbiosis C) List the lines of evidence that support evolution- and know that molecular evidence (DNA and proteins) is the most reliable. - Fossil evidence - Homologous structures - Analogous structures 1 - Vestigial structures - Embryological development - DNA / Biochemistry / Genetic Comparison D) Describe situations of evolution via examples (e.g. peppered moths, pelvic bone in whales/snakes, antibiotic resistance, etc.). E) Define the terms homologous structures / divergent evolution and understand that they are synonyms. Define the terms analogous structures / convergent evolution that they are also synonyms. Explain how these two concepts differ. - Homologous structures similar ancestor but could have different functions (ex: bird wing/whale flipper/human arm/crocodile limb) o Divergent evolution states that there was one ancestor and diverged (separated) out from there in order to survive. - Analogous structures different ancestry/different structure but have gained the same function. (ex: bat wing/bird wing/bee wing) o Convergent evolution states that when different species evolve similar traits to survive A) What is the smallest unit that can evolve? Populations 17.2 A) Define reproductive isolation. Define speciation. How can this happen? - Reproductive isolation: Different mating times and the ability to fertilize an organism of the same species. - Speciation: The formation of a new species - Speciation can occur due to various different issues: geographical isolation, reproductive isolation, changes in chromosome count, change in environment, etc A) Define gradualism and punctuated equilibrium. Gradualism is slow speciation, whereas punctuated equilibrium is quick speciation. This is all in response to how quickly an environment is changing. B) Know and write this down- with regards to human evolution -biology states that chimpanzees evolved from a common ancestor called a hominid (bipedal primate), biology never states that humans evolved from apes or monkeys. C) True or False. Human came from the monkeys. Ch. 18-Classification 18.1 A) Explain the role of Aristotle and Linnaeus in classification. What did they contribute to classification? - Aristotle: o Created the first widely accepted system of biological classification with 2 groups, plants and animals. o Plants: herbs, shrubs, and trees depending on their size and structure. o Animals: classified according to habitat and physical variation o Not based on evolutionary relationships - Linnaeus o Introduced the system of binomial nomenclature which used latin to move away from common names to remove confusion. He also based his naming on evolutionary relationships. B) List reasons why we use scientific names and not common names in science. We use scientific names because common names are not common around the world. However Latin is a dead language (not changing) so it is understood clearly by all of those in the scientific community. Overall it is to remove confusion. C) Describe a dichotomous key and its purpose. A dichotomous key is a series of yes/no questions that lead you to the name of an organism. It is a method by which to classify an unnamed organism. D) List the order of the 8 taxa starting with domain and ending with species. Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species 18.2 A) Describe why organisms are grouped together (derived characters, DNA, similar phenotypes, etc.) B) Define phylogeny/phylogenetics. Define cladogram. - Phylogeny: The study of evolutionary relationships among organisms. - Cladogram: Diagram depicting patterns of shared characteristics among species. 2 18.3 A) Describe the 3 domains (Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya). Give examples. - Archaea: Domain consisting of unicellular, prokaryotes that have cell walls that do not contain peptidoglycan; corresponds to the kingdom Archarbacteria. - Bacteria: Domain of unicellular, prokaryotes that have cell walls containing peptidoglycan; corresponds to the kingdrom eubacteria. - Eukarya: Domain consisting of all organisms that have a nucleus; includes protists, plants, fungi, and animals. B) List the 6 kingdoms. List characteristics for each Kingdom. Give examples for each. Make a chart! 1. Archaebacteria (_MONERANS- OLDEST/ARCHAIC ) - Prokaryotic and autotrophic with cell walls - Live in _EXTREME habitats like oxygen-free environments in the digestive tracts of cows. They create methane as a waste (_METHANOGENS ) Found in sewage disposal plants. Others live in water that has high concentrations of salt (HALOPHILES) like in the Dead Sea (Middle East). Lastly others live in hot THERMOPHILE/ACIDOPHILES_), acidic waters of sulfur springs. 2. Eubacteria ( MONERANS ) - Prokaryotic species of eubacteria (E.coli) - Cell walls and less complex than archaebacteria - Photosynthetic autotrophs- CYANOBACTERIA - Chemosynthetic autotrophs- change nitrogen into useable form for plants - Heterotrophs- can make you ill, _GERM/PATHOGENS - tuberculosis, cholera, traveler s diarrhea, Salmonella poisoning, E.coli, Listeria 3. Protists - Diverse group. Known as the _JUNK kingdom - _EUKARYOTIC but lacks a complex system - Lives in _MOIST_ habitats like ponds and lakes some are microscopic and some are visible with the naked eye - Unicellular or MULTICELLULAR & SOME IN COLONIES - Plant-like autotrophs- algae, diatoms, kelp. Green algae may be the ancestors to modern _PLANTS. - Animal-like heterotrophs- Protozoans that can move with _FALSE FEET (amoeba), flagella (protist that causes African sleeping sickness or protist in the gut of the termite to help digest cellulose of wood), or _CILIA (paramecium or stentor). Some float in the lighted areas of the ocean. Others reproduce by spores and cause disease like Plasmodium which causes _MALARIA - Fungus-like heterotrophs- slime molds, water molds, and downy mildews. A downy mildew, Phytopthera infestans caused the Irish potato FAMINE. 4. Fungi - Eukaryotic - _HETEROTROPHIC - No _MOBILITY - Unicellular or Multicellular - Cell wall made up of _CHITIN - _ABSORB nutrients from the organic materials in the environment (DECOMPOSERS) - Mutualistic (possible parasitic) relationship between lichens (fungi) and algae. Lichens are an association between a fungus and a photosynthetic green algae or a cyanobacterium. - Examples- yeast, mold, mushrooms, _RAINBOW FUNGI 5. Plants - Eukaryotic - Multicellular - _AUTOTROPHIC_ and photosynthetic - No mobility - Cell _WALLS and chloroplasts - Gymnosperms versus angiosperms: _GYMNOSPERMS_ have naked (no fruit) seeds. For example, evergreens, pines, FIRS which all have _NEEDLES. ANGIOSPERMS have seeds that are contained within a FRUIT and are the _FLOWERING plants. Angiosperms make up the largest group of plants. Widespread during the _CENOZOIC ERA. C) Explain what Monera means and what 2 Kingdoms it was divided into. Monera means bacteria. This is split into Archaebacteria (lives in harsh areas) and Eubacteria (germs) D) Compare and contrast how the two bacteria kingdoms (archae and eubacteria) differ. See above in previous two answers. E) Describe the basic features of protists (eukaryotes, many modes of nutrition, unicellular to multicellular, examples of-amoeba, paramecium, euglena, slime molds, etc.). (Chart) See above in B 3 F) Describe the basic features of fungi (heterotrophs that absorb their food, cell walls made of chitin, unicellular to multicellular, examples of-yeast, mushrooms, molds, etc.). (Chart) see above in B G) Describe the basic features of plants (autotrophs, cell walls made of cellulose, do both photosynthesis and cellular respiration, examples of-mosses, ferns, evergreens, maples). (Chart) See above in B H) Define transpiration in plants as it relates to the water cycle. Plants are an important part of the water cycle because they lose water back into the environment through the process of transpiration. I) Compare gymnosperms to angiosperms. Gymnosperms are non-flowering plants that bear seeds on the scales of cones. Angiosperms are flowering plants that bear seeds in fruiting bodies. J) Describe the basic features of animals (heterotrophs, multicellular, most are motile, includes both vertebrates and invertebrates). Ch. 20 and 35-Viruses and Prokaryotes 20.1 A) Identify the structures of a virus. A protein coat with a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) core. See examples below B) True or False. A virus is nonliving A) Identify the structures of a bacterium. See to the right B) List situations where bacteria are beneficial to humans. Producers, decomposers, and nitrogen fixers. Prokaryotes, especially bacteria, are used in the production of a wide variety of foods and other commercial products. Yogurt is produced by the bacterium Lactobacillus. Some bacteria can digest petroleum and remove human-made waste products and poisons from water. Other bacteria are used to synthesize drugs and chemicals through the techniques of genetic engineering. Bacteria and archaea adapted to extreme environments may be a rich source of heat-stable enzymes that can be used in medicine, food production, and industrial chemistry A) List examples of some common viruses and know the mode of transmission for Swine Flu, West Nile, and HIV (how they infect others). - Other examples: influenza, chicken pox, HPV, West Nile, SARS, Avian Flu, Mad Cow disease, and Swine flu. - Swine Flu is thought to be spread in the same manner as the basic flu from person to person (coughing, sneezing, or touching surfaces). - West Nile is most often transmitted by Mosquitoes. - HIV virus can be transmitted through some body fluids and blood. B) Describe prions and their link to Mad Cow Disease. Prions are microscopic protein particles that are similar to viruses except they are lacking in nucleic acids (DNA or RNA). They cause degenerative diseases of the nervous system. C) List examples of some common harmful bacteria (I.e. Salmonella, Tetanus, Anthrax, Streptococcus). 4 D) Describe how antibiotics work on bacterial infections and not on viral infections. What is ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT BACTERIA? A number of drugs can be used to attack a bacterial infection. These drugs include antibiotics--such as penicillin and tetracycline--that block the growth and reproduction of bacteria. Antibiotics disrupt proteins or cell processes that are specific to bacterial cells. In this way, they do not harm the host s cells. Antibiotics are not effective against viral infections. Antibiotic resistant bacteria then have created a resistance to the antibiotics and are still harmful to people. E) Describe how vaccines can be given before exposure to a bacterium or virus. A vaccine is a preparation of weakened or killed pathogens or inactivated toxins. When injected into the body, a vaccine prompts the body to produce immunity to a specific disease. Immunity is the body s ability to destroy pathogens or inactivated toxins. F) Define a pathogen and give examples. ` A pathogen is a disease causing mircoorganism (bacteria, virus, prion, etc.). Ch. 30, 31, 32, 33, and 34-The Human Body 30.3 A) Describe the functions of the organs within the digestive system. - The digestive system converts food into small molecules that can be used by the cells of the body. Food is processed by the digestive system in four phases ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination. - Ingestion: The process of putting food into your mouth - Digestion: food is broken down by either mechanical or chemical digestion - Absorption: After breaking down into molecules it is absorbed cells in the small intestine and then heads into the circulatory system. - Elimination: Anything that cannot be absorbed is passed through the large intestine and eliminated as waste. - Trace the path of food through the digestive tract. B) Compare chemical versus mechanical digestion. Mechanical digestion is the physical breakdown of large pieces of food into smaller pieces. Chemical digestion is when enzymes break down food into small molecules that the body can use A) Describe the function of the urinary system. The excretory (urinary) system, which includes the skin, lungs, liver, kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra, excretes metabolic wastes from the body in order to maintain homeostasis. Metabolic wastes are compounds that are produced by cells in the processes of everyday activities (ex. salts, carbon dioxide, ammonia, etc.) 31.1 A) Describe the function of the nervous system. The nervous system collects information about the body s internal and external environment, processes that information and responds to it. B) Explain how a neuron works to relay a message (I.e. If you touch a hot stove). An impulse is passed from dendrite cell body Axon (jumping from node to node for faster movement than without the myelin sheath) Axon terminals This is passed like an electric current. If it wants to pass on to another neuron it can go from Axon terminal to another neurons dendrites through a synapsis (via a neurotransmitter) A) Describe the functions of the skeletal system. The skeleton supports the body, protects internal organs, assists movement, stores minerals, and is a site of blood cell formation. B) Describe how human joints are analogous to hinges. Joints allow for back and forth motion of bones without having them scrape together, like the opening and closing of a door A) Explain how muscles work together in opposing pairs (I.e. biceps and triceps). Skeletal muscles are joined to bone by tendons which acts like a lever in that when one muscle relaxes another must be contracted. See p 32.3 A) Describe the functions of the integumentary system. The integumentary system (skin) serves as a barrier against infection and injury, helps to regulate body temperature, removes wastes from the body, gathers information, and produces vitamin D. B) Describe what happens when skin is injured and how infection is prevented. When skin is injured it divides rapidly by mitosis to close off the gap and protect from infection A) Describe the function of the circulatory system The circulatory system transports oxygen, nutrients, and other substances throughout the body, and removes wastes from tissues B) Trace the path of blood through the body. Pulmonary circulation and systematic circulation see p. 950 C) Describe the components to blood. Actually in 33.2 Plasma is about 90% water and 10% dissolved gases, salts, nutrients, enzymes, hormones, waste products, plasma proteins, cholesterol, and other important compounds. Helps to control body temp, regulating osmotic pressure, blood volume, fighting bacterial and viral infections, and allows for blood to clot. Red Blood Cells contain the protein hemoglobin which allows it to carry oxygen. White Blood Cells, or leukocytes, guard against infection, fight parasites, and attack bacteria Platelets are cell fragments that along with other proteins allows for blood to clot A) Describe the function of the respiratory system The human respiratory system picks up oxygen from the air we inhale and releases carbon dioxide into the air we exhale. B) Trace the pathway of air and explain how the circulatory system is linked to the respiratory system. see p. 965 C) Describe the actions of the diaphragm during inhalation and exhalation. During inhalation, the rib cage rises and the diaphragm contracts, increasing the size of the chest cavity. During exhalation, the rib cage lowers and the diaphragm relaxes, decreasing the size of the chest cavity A) Describe the function of the endocrine system The endocrine system is made up of glands that release hormones into the blood. Hormones deliver messages throughout the body. B) Explain how glucose is regulated by the pancreas. The pancreas produces insulin and glucagon, which regulate the level of glucose in the blood. When the body does not produce or respond to insulin then diabetes occurs. See p. 984 for a description of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. C) Describe the
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