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Freshwater Fish Diversity, Abundance, Conservation and Effect of Aquatic Birds on Fish Population in Kammalakkulama Tank at Mihintale, Sri Lanka | Aquatic Ecosystem | Sri Lanka

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Sri Lanka is a tropical island located in the Indian Ocean off the southern tip of Indian peninsular with 65,610 km2 in extent (IUCN Sri Lanka, 2007). In Sri Lanka total fish species are 91 and 50 are endemic to Sri Lanka (The National Red List of Sri Lanka, 2012). Sri Lanka also has highly diversified freshwater bodies in dry zone. There are hundreds of smaller reservoirs scattered throughout the country in the dry zone (Fernando, 1990). The study was carried out at Kammalakkulama tank near to the Mihintale, close to the Puttalam - Anuradhapura – Trincomalee Highway (A 12) in dry zone. The present study aims to identify the diversity and abundance of freshwater fish, effect of aquatic birds on fish population and conservation of freshwater fishes in Kammalakkulama tank.
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  : | ^jfa   Grasmwjtar Glsm Hlvarslty, Jbu`hj`da, Do`sarvjtlo` j`h Aggadt og Jqujtld Blrhs o` Glsm ^opucjtlo` l` Ejiijcjeeucjij Xj`e jt Ilml`tjca, Trl Cj`ej M. E. T. Ha [oysj : , X. W. Tu`hjrjbjrjtmy 2   :, 2  Hapjrtia`t og Blocofldjc Tdla`das, Gjducty og Jppclah Tdla`das, Rjkjrjtj Q`lvarslty og Trl Cj`ej, Ilml`tjca, Trl Cj`ej. (hazoysjmesNyjmoo.doi, tvbjrjtmyNyjmoo.doi) L`trohudtlo` Trl Cj`ej ls j tropldjc lscj`h codjtah l` tma L`hlj` Odaj` ogg tma soutmar` tlp og L`hlj` pa`l`sucjr wltm 71,7:> ei 2  l` axta`t (LQD@ Trl Cj`ej, 2>>6). Xotjc `uibar og glsm spadlas prasa`t l` tma dou`try ls <: j`h og tmjt 1> spadlas jra a`haild to Trl Cj`ej (Xma @jtlo`jc Rah Clst og Trl Cj`ej, 2>:2). Trl Cj`ej jcso mjs mlfmcy hlvarslglah grasmwjtar bohlas l` hry zo`a. Xmara jra mu`hrahs og sijccar rasarvolrs sdjttarah tmroufmout tma dou`try l` tma hry zo`a (Gar`j`ho, :<<>). Xma stuhy wjs djrrlah out jt Ejiijcjeeucjij tj`e, `ajr to tma Ilml`tjca j`h dcosa to tma ^uttjcji - J`urjhmjpurj  —   Xrl`doijcaa Mlfmwjy (J :2) l` hry zo`a. Xma prasa`t stuhy jlis to lha`tlgy tma hlvarslty j`h jbu`hj`da og grasmwjtar glsm, aggadt og jqujtld blrhs o` glsm popucjtlo` j`h do`sarvjtlo` og grasmwjtar glsmas l` Ejiijcjeeucjij tj`e. Iatmohocofy Xma stuhy wjs do`hudtah groi Ijy to Jufust 2>:4 jt two sltas, Tlta : (sub sjipcl`f sltas G-:, G-2, G-4) codjtah `ajr tma frjvac rojh wmldm do``adts tma vlccjfa j`h Tlta 2 (sub sjipcl`f sltas G“ - :, G“ - 2, G“ -4) codjtah jt tma bjtml`f slta og vlccjfars (Glf.:). Rj`hoi sjipcl`f tadm`lqua wjs usah gor glsm. Tjipcl`f wjs ho`a usl`f j qujhrjta (slza og 2 i x 2 i) j`h sdoop `at jt j rjta og glva tlias wltml` : -2 il`utas l`tarvjc l` tma sacadtah two sltas. ^ol`t dou`t iatmoh wjs usah gor jqujtld blrhs. Tjipcl`f wjs ho`a batwaa` >7.>>  —   >=.>> mr. j`h :8.>>  —   :7.>> mr., twlda par waae. Vjtar qujclty  pjrjiatars pM, Hlssocvah Oxyfa` (HO), Blocofldjc Oxyfa` Haij`h (BOH) j`h do`hudtlvlty wara iajsurah. Xma hlvarslty l`hldas wara djcducjtah gor glsm j`h tma dorracjtlo` batwaa` grasmwjtar glsm j`h jqujtld blrhs wjs hataril`ah by Ij``-Vmlt`ay tast. Rasucts j`h Hlsdusslo` Tpadlas doiposltlo`; Hurl`f tma stuhy parloh 2: glsm spadlas wara radorhah baco`fs to :1 fa`arj, < gjilclas j`h 4 (:8%) a`haild spadlas UGcyl`f Bjrb (  Asoius tmarioldos ), Trl Cj`ej Bcua Cjubudj (  Cjubudj cj`ea`sls ), Trl Cj`ej Glcjia`tah Bjrb (  ^u`tlus sl`fmjcj )Y. Xwa`ty alfmt spadlas og jqujtld blrhs l`dcuhl`f 27 fa`arj, :1 gjilclas wara radorhah. Iost jbu`hj`t jqujtld blrh spadlas wara Cassar Vmlstcl`f-hude (  Ha`hrodyf`j kjvj`ldj ), Vmlsearah Xar` ( Dmclho`ljs mybrlhj ), Jslj` Opa`blcc (  J`jstoius osdltj`s ), Bcjde-majhah Lbls ( Xmraselor`ls iacj`odapmjcus ), L`hlj` ^o`h-maro` (  Jrhaocj frjyll ), Djttca Afrat (  Bubucdus lbls ), ^urpca Maro` (  Jrhaj purpuraj ), Frajt Afrat ( Djsiarohlus jcbus ), Clttca Doriorj`t (  ^mjcjdrodorjx `lfar  ), L`hlj` Doriorj`t (  ^mjcjdrodorjx gusdldoccls ), Vmlta-tmrojtah El`fglsmar (  Mjcdyo` siyr`a`sls ), Doiio` El`fglsmar (  Jcdaho jttmls ), Vmlta brajstah Vjtarma` (  Jijuror`ls pmoa`ldurus ), Clttca Afrat (  Afrattj fjrzattj ).    2 | ^jfa  Hlvarslty j`h jbu`hj`da og glsm spadlas; Tmj``o` Val`ar Hlvarslty l`hax ( Mʳ ) l` Tlta : j`h Tlta 2 wara :.88 j`h :.86 raspadtlvacy. Tlipso` L`hax (H) wjs mlfmar jt Tlta 2 (>.46) tmj` Tlta : (>.24). Ijrfjcag“s Hlvarslty L`hax  (H if ) l` Tlta : wjs mlfmar (4.81) tmj` Tlta 2 (2.<>). ^lacou“s K (Ava``ass) (A M ) wara Tlta : (>.86) j`h Tlta 2 (>.8=) raspadtlvacy. Xma rasucts ravajcah tmjt tma Tlta 2 ls doipjrjtlvacy battar slta gor glsm spadlas tmj` tma Tlta :. Js Tlta 2 wjs wltm cjrfa smjhl`f traas j`h tma root og tmasa traas mjva pca`ty og mlhl`f pcjdas gor glsm wmarajs Tlta : cjdes cjrfa traas wltm roots. Grasmwjtar glsm hlvarslty j`h jbu`hj`da jt tma sacadtah two sltas hlh`“t smow j`y hlggara`da  wmldm ravajcah tmjt tmara ls `o hlggara`da l` tma gooh jvjlcjblclty, mjblts atd. Vjtar qujclty pjrjiatars; Iaj` pM wjs 7.1<º >.: l` Tlta : j`h 6.:2 º >.2 l` Tlta 2. Iaj` HO wjs 1.:2 º >.:if/c j`h 8.:6 º >.8 if/c l` Tlta : j`h Tlta 2 raspadtlvacy wmarajs iaj` BOH wjs >.67º >.4 if/c j`h >.<6º >.4 if/c l` Tlta : j`h Tlta 2 raspadtlvacy. Do`hudtlvlty l` Tlta : wjs :26.= º >.2 ±s/di j`h Tlta 2 wjs :2=.< º >.: ±s/di. Xma wjtar qujclty pjrjiatars og tma two sltas wara `ot slf`lgldj`tcy hlggara`t (p3>.>1) j`h tmosa jra l` gjvorjbca rj`fa gor tma jqujtld clga. Xmaragora tma jbu`hj`da og glsm l` Tlta : j`h Tlta 2 ls `ot jggadtah by tma wjtar qujclty pjrjiatars. Aggadt og Jqujtld blrhs gor tma grasmwjtar glsm hlvarslty; Xmara wjs j posltlva dorracjtlo` batwaa` jqujtld blrhs j`h grasmwjtar glsmas (p 9 >.>:8) (p 3 >.>1) wmldm l`hldjtas tmjt tma prasa`da og mlfmar `uibar og jqujtlds blrhs jggadts tma grasmwjtar glsm  popucjtlo` l` Ejiijcjeeucjij tj`e. Xma jqujtld jvlgju`jc spadlas hlradtcy jggadt tma glsm  popucjtlo` prasa`t l` Ejiijcjeeucji tj`e (Glf.2.). Do`dcuslo`s Ejiijcjeeucji tj`e provlhas sultjbca mjbltjts gor botm jvlgju`j j`h glsmas spadlas wltm gooh, smactar, prahjtor protadtlo` atd. Do`sarvjtlo` aspadljccy a`haild glsmas jra vary liportj`t gor gutura  pardaptlo` js tma axotld spadlas drajta mlfmar doipatltlo` jio`f a`haild j`h l`hlfa`ous spadlas gor goohs, spjda, smactar, atd. Vltm tma do`sarvjtlo` og glsm popucjtlo`, sliuctj`aouscy tma jvlgju`jc hlvarslty jcso dj` ba ajslcy do`sarvah. Xmaragora jwjra`ass og vlccjfars ls tma bast wjy to do`sarva tma glsm popucjtlo` l` Ejiijcjeeucjij tj`e.  4 | ^jfa   Glfura : ; Tacadtah stuhy sltas jt Ejiijcjeeucjij tj`e Hjta  6   7   1  8   4   2   :    G   l  s   m  J .   B   l  r  h  s   G   l  s   m  J .   B   l  r  h  s   G   l  s   m  J .   B   l  r  h  s   G   l  s   m  J .   B   l  r  h  s   G   l  s   m  J .   B   l  r  h  s   G   l  s   m  J .   B   l  r  h  s   G   l  s   m  J .   B   l  r  h  s 1>>8>>4>>2>>:>>>  Glfura 2; Grasmwjtar Glsm j`h Jqujtld blrhs hlstrlbutlo` l` tma ejiijcjeeucjij tj`e Eay worhs;  A`haild, Hry zo`a, Hlvarslty, Rj`hoi sjipcl`f, Trl Cj`ej  8 | ^jfa  Ragara`das Gar`j`ho, D. M. (:<<>).  Grasmwjtar gju`j j`h glsmarlas og Trl Cj`ej. . Docoibo 6; @jturjc rasourda, a`arfy j`h sdla`da jutmorlty og Trl Cj`ej. LQD@ Trl Cj`ej. (2>>6). Xma 2>>6 Rah Clst og tmrajta`ah gju`j j`h gcorj og Trl Cj`ej Docoibo, Trl Cj`ej. Xma @jtlo`jc Rah Clst og Trl Cj`ej. (2>:2). Do`sarvjtlo` stjtus og tma gju`j j`h gcorj . Docoibo, Trl Cj`ej; Blohlvarslty Tadratjrljt og tma Il`lstry og A`vlro`ia`t (IOA) l` Doccjborjtlo` j`h tma @jtlo`jc Marbjrlui. 
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