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Honors packet Instructions

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Honors packet Instructions The following are guidelines in order for you to receive FULL credit for this bio packet: 1. Professionally skim through the following packet. a. Annotate only the information
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Honors packet Instructions The following are guidelines in order for you to receive FULL credit for this bio packet: 1. Professionally skim through the following packet. a. Annotate only the information necessary for you to write your preferred essay question. There are two to choose from and I have included readings for both it is a lot, so please use your brainpower wisely with this packet 2. Answer the multiple choice questions correctly and JUSTIFY your answer Example Question: Which of the following organelles is involved in photosynthesis? a) The mitochondria b) The endoplasmic Reticulum c) The liver d) The chloroplast Example answer: The correct answer is D because the chloroplast is an organelle that contains chlorophyll a pigment directly associated with Absorbing light from the sun. the other organelles listed have other functions throughout the cell, and the liver isn t an organelle at all. 3. Complete one the essay responses **you do not have to print out the packet in order to take notes and complete the quiz** I HIGHLY ENCOURAGE YOU TO WORK IN STUDY GROUPS FOR THIS PACKET See wynn for questions! Review Chapter 11: Plants The Diversity of Plants Plants, from tiny mosses to giant redwoods, are found on almost every continent on Earth. Plants evolved from a species of green algae and have since adapted to terrestrial life. The phylogenetic tree shows the relationships among major groups of land plants. Bryophytes (Nonvascular Plants) Includes Hornworts, Liverworts, Mosses Lycophytes and Pterophytes (Seedless Vascular Plants) Includes Club Mosses, Ferns Gymnosperms (Naked Seed Plants) Includes Conifers Angiosperms (Covered Seed Plants) Includes Grasses and Flowering Plants Vascular Plants Bryophytes, which include true mosses, liverworts, and hornworts, are nonvascular plants. They lack vascular (transport) tissues and therefore 192 sat biology e/m SUBJECT TEST remain small. Bryophytes have an important adaptation to land: a toughwalled spore that can travel outside of water without drying out. A spore is a haploid cell that undergoes mitosis to produce a multicellular, haploid organism. (Bryophytes have haploid and diploid generations, as described in the next section.) The remaining groups are the vascular plants. The lycophytes and pterophytes (including ferns) still share an important characteristic with bryophytes: they produce spores instead of seeds. However, these plants are able to transport water and dissolved nutrients from their roots to their leaves through a vascular system. Among vascular plants, gymnosperms and angiosperms produce seeds instead of spores. A seed is an embryonic plant that is enclosed, along with food, in a protective covering (called an integument). Gymnosperms ( naked seed plants) have seeds that are partially exposed to the air. Gymnosperms include conifers such as pine, fir, and spruce trees, as well as cycads and gingko trees. Angiosperms, or flowering plants, produce seeds that are completely encased in an integument. Many angiosperms produce fruits or starchy grains associated with seeds. Angiosperms include deciduous trees, grasses, and all other flowering plants. Almost all agriculturally important plants are angiosperms. Alternation of Haploid and Diploid Generations All plants alternate between haploid and diploid generations, or forms. However, plants vary in the generation that forms the mature, or adult, plant. The diploid sporophyte form undergoes meiosis, giving rise to haploid spores. The spores divide mitotically to form a haploid plant body called a gametophyte. The gametophyte produces gametes (sperm and egg cells) via mitosis. (Compare to animals, which form gametes directly from the diploid body through meiosis.) Gametes join in fertilization to produce the diploid zygote, which divides mitotically to form the sporophyte generation. REVIEW CHAPTER 11: PLANTS 193 The diagram below summarizes the cycle of plant generations. Note that in mosses, the haploid gametophyte is the dominant generation. The green mosses visible on trees or in soil are all haploid gametophytes. Haploid n Spores n Mitosis n Gametophyte n Gametes n n Fertilization Diploid Meiosis 2n Zygote 2n Mitosis Sporophyte Plants Dominant Generation Haploid Form (via meiosis) Diploid Form (via fertilization) Nonvascular plants (for example, mosses) Haploid gametophyte Spores that form the adult plant, which produces sperm and eggs; occurs by mitosis Zygote, which forms inside the gametophyte; the sporophyte is a small structure dependent on the gametophyte; it produces and releases spores Seedless vascular plants (for example, ferns) Diploid sporophyte Spores that divide mitotically to form small, leaflike, free-living gametophytes, which produce gametes Zygote and young and adult plants; adult plants produce haploid spores Gymnosperms and angiosperms Diploid sporophyte Pollen grains and the interiors of ovules Seeds and young and adult plants 194 sat biology e/m SUBJECT TEST Reproduction in Flowering Plants Angiosperms are characterized by flowers, seeds, and fruits. (Note that not all angiosperms produce showy flowers or fruits.) The structure of a typical flower is shown below. Anthers Filament Stamen Pistil Stigma Style Ovary Pollen is produced in the anthers of the stamens. Pollination, the transfer of pollen to the stigma, may be carried out by insects, or the pollen may be dispersed by wind. A tube cell in the pollen grain forms a tube from the stigma, through the style, and into the ovary. Pollen also contains two sperm cells. One sperm cell fertilizes the egg cell to form the zygote, which divides mitotically to form the plant embryo contained in the seed. The other sperm cell combines with two nuclei in the ovule, forming a triploid cell. This gives rise to endosperm, the nutrient- rich, starchy tissue that provides food for the embryo within the seed. Angiosperms: Monocots and Dicots Most flowering plants fall into one of two main groupings: monocotyledons and dicotyledons. These groups are named for the number of seed leaves (cotyledons) in the embryonic plant. Monocots include palm trees, orchids, and grasses (which include economically important cereal crops, such as corn, wheat, and rice). Monocots do not produce true wood. Dicots include many fruit- and vegetable- producing plants and trees that produce hardwoods (for example, oaks, maples, birches). The criteria for distinguishing monocots and dicots are summarized in the table shown. REVIEW CHAPTER 11: PLANTS 195 Cotyledons Petals Leaves Roots Xylem and Phloem Monocots One Two Multiples of three Multiples of four or five Veins run parallel along the leaf Dicots Veins branch out in a net Fibrous root system with no main root One main taproot, with smaller roots growing from it Distributed throughout stem Arranged in a ring Plant Tissues and Organs The basic body plan of a plant consists of a root system, which absorbs water and dissolved nutrients from the soil; and a shoot system, which carries out photosynthesis and transports nutrients to the roots. Vascular tissues distribute needed materials throughout the root and shoot systems. Nearly every part of a plant consists of tissue from three types or systems: dermal, vascular, and ground. Dermal. This is the skin of the plant, and includes the root covering, epidermis, and leaf cuticle. Vascular. This includes xylem and phloem in the plant s roots, stem, and leaves. Ground. This includes all other tissues that regulate dermal and vascular tissue and carry out photosynthesis. Leaves Plant leaves play primary roles in photosynthesis and water regulation. The structure of a plant leaf is shown, with its components described on the following page. 196 sat biology e/m SUBJECT TEST Epidermis Bundle sheath cell Palisade layer of mesophyll Vein Xylem Phloem Epidermis Stoma Guard cell Spongy layer of mesophyll Epidermis. These cells form the upper and lower surfaces of the leaf. They are covered in a protective cuticle and contain openings called stomata. The openings allow gas exchange between the air and the leaf cells and may be closed to prevent the loss of water from the leaf. Mesophyll. This middle layer of the leaf carries out photosynthesis. The mesophyll cells in the upper palisade layer are elongated and tightly packed. The lower, spongy layer is more loosely arranged. Spongy mesophyll cells are key in gas exchange between the mesophyll and the air spaces in the leaf. Vein (vascular bundle). The leaf vein consists of xylem and phloem cells surrounded by bundled sheaf cells. Materials pass through this outer ring of cells, into and out of the mesophyll. Vascular Tissues Vascular tissues transport saps consisting of water, minerals, sugars, and other compounds throughout the plant body. Vascular tissues include xylem and phloem. Xylem. Xylem conducts water and minerals from a plant s roots to its leaves. Xylem is composed of dead, elongated cells called tracheids and vessel elements. Phloem. In contrast, the sugar- transporting phloem consists of living cells. Sap moves along long, narrow sieve cells; in angiosperms, REVIEW CHAPTER 11: PLANTS 197 these are called sieve-tube members. These cells are regulated by companion cells that lie alongside them. Water Transport and Regulation Water is essential to land plants, which must absorb it from the soil and transport it, sometimes hundreds of feet, to the highest leaves. Two forces affect water transport: root pressure and transpiration. Transpiration is regulated by the opening and closing of stomata. Root pressure. Water and dissolved minerals from soil enter plants through the roots. A waxy layer within the root, the Casparian strip, prevents water from entering vascular tissue via the spaces between cells. Water must pass through the selective plasma membrane of root endodermis cells. Endodermis cells pump mineral ions (such as potassium, K + ) into the vascular tissue. This increases the amount of water entering the vascular tissue by osmosis. This process creates root pressure, a push of water into the plant. Root pressure plays a much smaller role in water transport than transpiration. Transpiration. Water in the leaf is lost to the environment as vapor that exits through the stomata. This water loss is called transpiration. Transpiration causes water from within cells to enter the spaces within the leaf. However, this water must be replaced by water in the xylem. Transpiration pulls water from the veins into plant leaves. Because of water s high cohesion (stickiness between water molecules) and adhesion (stickiness to vascular tissue surfaces), the pull of transpiration acts down the length of the plant. It is primarily responsible for the upward flow of sap through the xylem. Stomata. These openings in the leaf epidermis control transpiration by regulating the loss of water from the leaves. The pore in each stoma is surrounded by two guard cells, which can expand to open when turgid or wilt to close. The guard cells pump potassium ions into their vacuoles. This causes 198 sat biology e/m SUBJECT TEST water to enter via osmosis, increasing the pressure in the cell and causing turgor. The swollen guard cell opens, allowing gas exchange through the stomata. When water pressure is low, temperature is high, or it is night, potassium ions exit the guard cells, pulling water after them. The wilted guard cells block the stomata opening, preventing water loss from the plant. Plant Growth Plants have indeterminate growth thanks to tissues called meristems, which consist of cells that can differentiate to form new shoots, roots, and leaves. Apical meristems are located on the tips of shoots and roots and are responsible for primary growth, which increases a plant s length. The apical meristem is surrounded by leaf primordia, which form new leaves. During primary growth, meristem cells are left behind at the bases of leaves, forming axillary buds. Apical dominance refers to the fact that apical meristems suppress the development of nearby axillary meristems. As the plant grows, the axillary buds may develop and form new leaves or branches. Lateral meristems are located inside the trunks and roots of woody plants and are responsible for increases in thickness. Vascular cambium and cork cambium are both lateral meristems. Hormones and Growth Plant growth is regulated by hormones, chemical signals that are produced in one plant tissue and cause a response in other tissues. The hormone auxin was discovered in studies of phototropic responses in grass seedlings (coleoptiles). A tropism is a response toward or away from a stimulus; phototropism refers to a plant s bending toward a light source. Plant hormones are summarized below. Auxin stimulates the growth and differentiation of roots and shoots in fruit and causes tropic responses. Gibberellin stimulates growth of stems and leaves and stimulates flower and fruit development. REVIEW CHAPTER 11: PLANTS 199 Abscisic acid inhibits growth and germination and causes stomata to close. Ethylene ripens fruit and may stimulate or inhibit plant growth. Cytokinin regulates root growth and stimulates the germination of seeds. Brassinosteroid inhibits root growth as well as leaf abscission. Review Questions 1. Which of these plant forms are diploid? I. Spore II. Sporophyte III. Gametophyte A. I only B. II only C. III only D. I and II E. II and III 2. Which of these correctly matches the plant cells to their tissue systems? I. Guard cell II. Palisade mesophyll cell III. Sieve-tube member A. I = dermal; II = ground; III = vascular B. I = dermal; II = vascular; III = ground C. I = ground; II = dermal; III = vascular D. I = ground; II = vascular; III = dermal E. I = vascular; II = ground; III = dermal 200 sat biology e/m SUBJECT TEST 3. Which of these is/are responsible for an increase in the thickness of a plant? I. Apical meristem II. Vascular cambium III. Cork cambium A. I only B. II only C. III only D. I and II E. II and III 4. Which of these describes a difference between monocots and dicots? A. Monocot embryos form two leaves; dicot embryos form a single leaf. B. Monocot flowers may consist of five petals; dicot flowers may consist of six petals. C. Monocot leaves have a branching network of veins; dicot leaves have parallel veins. D. Monocot roots consist of many small roots growing from a taproot; dicot roots lack a taproot. E. Monocot vascular tissue is arranged randomly in the stem; dicot vascular tissue is arranged in a ring. REVIEW CHAPTER 11: PLANTS Which of these increase the movement of sap within the xylem? I. Water moves into guard cells vacuoles. II. Humidity increases in surrounding air. III. Root endodermis prevents ions from entering xylem. A. I only B. II only C. I and III D. II and III E. I, II, and III Answer Explanations 1. B. Only the sporophyte is diploid. The sporophyte produces haploid spores, which divide mitotically to produce the gametophyte. The gametophyte produces haploid gametes. 2. A. Guard cells, which make up the stomata of the epidermis, are classified as dermal tissue. Palisade mesophyll cells, which carry out photosynthesis, are classified as ground tissue. Sieve- tube members, which make up the phloem, are classified as vascular tissue. 3. E. The vascular cambium and the cork cambium are forms of lateral meristem, which increase the thickness (secondary growth) of woody plants. The apical meristem increases the length of a plant (primary growth) only. 4. E. Monocot vascular tissue is arranged randomly in the stem, while dicot vascular tissue is arranged in a ring. All other answer choices have characteristics reversed. 5. A. Water moving into guard cells increases turgor pressure, causing them to swell. Swollen guard cells open the stomatal pore, allowing water vapor to exit the leaf via transpiration. This, in turn, draws water up from the roots. In contrast, increasing humidity decreases water loss from the leaves. Root endodermis increases root pressure by pumping ions into the xylem. Review Chapter 12: Animal Organ Systems, Part 1 Animals are complex, multicellular organisms. They must coordinate the actions of many specialized cells and tissues in order to meet the basic cellular needs: obtain nutrients and oxygen; dispose of carbon dioxide and other metabolic wastes; maintain osmotic (water) balance; and keep conditions within a narrow, optimal range for biochemical reactions. These functions are summed up by the term homeostasis. This chapter describes how the major mammalian body systems help to maintain homeostasis and carry out other life functions. A comparison with other types of animals is also provided. The Muscular and Skeletal Systems The muscular and skeletal systems function in locomotion, as well as in gas exchange and digestion. Mammalian muscle tissues are divided into three types, as follows: Skeletal muscle is found beneath the skin and attached to bone. Voluntary contractions of skeletal muscles allow movement. Skeletal muscle has striations (stripes) due to the arrangement of muscle fibers. Smooth muscle lines the bladder, digestive tract, and arteries. It lacks striations and is not under voluntary control. 204 sat biology e/m SUBJECT TEST Cardiac muscle is found in the heart. It shares characteristics of both smooth and skeletal muscle. Contracting Muscle Fibers Muscle fibers are long, thin, multinucleated cells packed together to make up muscle tissue. Each muscle fiber contains long strands made up of the proteins actin and myosin. Actin and myosin filaments are arranged in units called sarcomeres, as shown below; note how they partially overlap. When a muscle fiber is stimulated, the region of overlap increases, causing the fibers to contract. This is the sliding- filament model of muscle contraction. Actin Myosin Relaxed Muscle Fiber Sarcomere Actin Myosin Contracted Muscle Fiber Sarcomere Opposing Muscles Contract Tendons attach muscles to the bones of the skeleton. Because muscles can only voluntarily contract but cannot extend, they often work in opposing pairs. As one muscle contracts, the opposing muscle is extended, and the limb moves toward the contracting muscle. To move the limb in the opposite direction, the opposing muscle must contract. REVIEW CHAPTER 12: ANIMAL ORGAN SYSTEMS, PART Skeletal Joints Joints between bones allow for a range of motion. The following describes some of the joints in the body. Note that some structures in the body may include a combination of joint types. Ball-and-socket joints allow for the rotation of limbs. They occur where the upper arm bone attaches to the shoulder and where the upper thigh bone attaches to the hip. Hinge joints allow swinging motion in one dimension. Hinge joints can be found at the elbows and the knees. Pivot joints allow rotational motion in one dimension. They can be found at the elbows and neck. Saddle and condyloid joints allow movement in two planes. They are found in the hands, feet, wrists, and ankles. Comparison: Hydrostatic Skeleton Contraction of opposing muscle pairs also occurs in organisms with exoskeletons (for example, arthropods). Animals that lack a skeleton (for example, annelids) may use a hydrostatic skeleton fluid in a closed sac. Pressure applied to one part of the sac is distributed throughout the fluid, affecting other regions of the sac. For example, an earthworm contracts segments of its body, elongating other segments and thus moving forward. The Nervous System The cells of the brain, spinal cord, and body receive signals from the environment, process information, and carry out movements. They make up the nervous system, which includes cells called neurons. Neurons and Action Potentials A neuron consists of dendrites, which receive signals from other neurons; a cell body that contains the nucleus; and an axon that transmits a signal down its length and through the terminal branches. Cells called glia form myelin, which wraps around and insul
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