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Lycium Barbarum and Human Health

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Lycium Barbarum and Human Health Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang Kwok-Fai So Editors Lycium Barbarum and Human Health 1 3 Editors Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Diseases Department
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Lycium Barbarum and Human Health Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang Kwok-Fai So Editors Lycium Barbarum and Human Health 1 3 Editors Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Diseases Department of Anatomy LKS Faculty of Medicine the University of Hong Kong Hong Kong China Kwok-Fai So Department of Anatomy LKS Faculty of Medicine the University of Hong Kong Hong Kong China ISBN DOI / ISBN (ebook) Library of Congress Control Number: Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg New York London Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science + Business Media (www.springer.com) Preface The fruit of Lycium barbarum (also called Wolfberry) is known to be anti-aging and nurtures the eyes or vision. It is an upper class Chinese medicine, meaning that it can be used as medicine for therapy as well as an ingredient in Chinese cuisine. Collective efforts from different research teams have proven that the fruits of Lycium barbarum have rich sources that protect our whole body, from the skin to the liver, brain and eyes. Therefore, regular consumption of Lycium barbarum can help us to keep the balance of Yin/Yang in our body to fight against any possible age-associated diseases. There is a famous Chinese story related to Lycium barbarum. One day a young man was walking in a village. On his way, he found two people arguing with each other in a narrow lane. He went to see what had happened and found a relatively young and strong man with black hair arguing with a weak elder with grey hair. It looked like the elder had been blamed for something. In Chinese culture, we all have great respect for the elderly. This was why this young man did not feel quite right and thought that the man with black hair was not paying respect to his senior. He asked this weak elder with grey hair whether the black-haired man had done him some injustice. The grey-haired man then pointed to the strong black-haired man, saying, he is my big brother. The strong black-haired big brother said that his little brother did not listen to him and take Lycium barbarum. This was why his little brother looked old and weak. From this story, we have insight into the beneficial effects of Lycium barbarum. In this book, we have carefully arranged the content from the plant, the chemical components and the effects on different organs/biological systems as well as its potential harmful effects. Authors in every chapter used different scientific methods to prove the effects of Lycium barbarum. We are not just showing the benefits of Lycium barbarum. Some people may be allergic to Lycium barbarum. This book is the first book about Lycium barbarum written in English. As more people are searching for health food supplements and there are many so-called secrete formulations of herbs and health food supplements, we should look for some reliable health food with solid scientific evidence and be cautious of any possible deleterious effects. We hope that this book gives us a comprehensive understanding of the pros and cons of this anti-aging Lycium barbarum. Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang Kwok-Fai SO v Contents 1 Chemical and Genetic Diversity of Wolfberry... 1 Ying Wang, Hao Chen, Min Wu, Shaohua Zeng, Yongliang Liu and Jingzhou Dong 2 Immunoregulation and Lycium Barbarum Xiaorui Zhang, Wenxia Zhou and Yongxiang Zhang 3 The Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, and Antiapoptotic Effects of Wolfberry in Fatty Liver Disease Jia Xiao and George L. Tipoe 4 Effects of Lycium barbarum on Modulation of Blood Vessel and Hemodynamics Xue-Song Mi, Ruo-Jing Huang, Yong Ding, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang and Kwok-Fai So 5 Dermatologic Uses and Effects of Lycium Barbarum Hui Zhao and Krzysztof Bojanowski 6 Lycium Barbarum and Tumors in the Gastrointestinal Tract Peifei Li, Bingxiu Xiao, Huilin Chen and Junming Guo 7 Prevention of Neurodegeneration for Alzheimer s Disease by Lycium barbarum Yuen-Shan Ho, Xiao-ang Li, Clara Hiu-Ling Hung and Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang 8 Prosexual Effects of Lycium Barbarum Benson Wui-Man Lau, Mason Chin-Pang Leung, Kai-Ting Po, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang and Kwok-Fai So 9 Lycium Barbarum: Neuroprotective Effects in Ischemic Stroke Amy CY Lo and Di Yang vii viii Contents 10 Secondary Degeneration After Partial Optic Nerve Injury and Possible Neuroprotective Effects of Lycium Barbarum (Wolfberry) Hong-Ying Li, Henry HL Chan, Patrick HW Chu, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang and Kwok-Fai So 11 Role of Lycium Barbarum Extracts in Retinal Diseases María Benlloch, María Muriach, Gloria Castellano, Francisco Javier Sancho-Pelluz, Emilio González-García, Miguel Flores-Bellver and Francisco J. Romero 12 Allergenic Sensitisation Mediated by Wolfberry Jerónimo Carnés, Carlos H. de Larramendi, María Angeles López-Matas, Angel Ferrer and Julio Huertas Contributors María Benlloch Universidad Católica de Valencia San Vicente Mártir, Valencia, Spain Krzysztof Bojanowski Sunny BioDiscovery, Inc., Santa Paula, CA, USA Jerónimo Carnés R&D Department, Laboratorios LETI S.L., Madrid, Spain Gloria Castellano Universidad Católica de Valencia San Vicente Mártir, Valencia, Spain Henry HL Chan Laboratory of Experimental Optometry (Neuroscience), School of Optometry, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Diseases Department of Anatomy, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China GHM Institute of CNS Regeneration and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Brain Function and Diseases, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China Research Centre of Heart, Brain, Hormone and Healthy Aging, LKS Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hao Chen South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China Huilin Chen Ningbo College of Health Sciences, Ningbo, People s Republic of China Patrick HW Chu Laboratory of Experimental Optometry (Neuroscience), School of Optometry, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, Yong Ding Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China Jingzhou Dong Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China ix x Contributors Angel Ferrer Allergy Unit, Hospital General Universitario de Elche, Alicante, Spain Miguel Flores-Bellver Universidad Católica de Valencia San Vicente Mártir, Valencia, Spain Emilio González-García Universidad Católica de Valencia San Vicente Mártir, Valencia, Spain Junming Guo Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Pathophysiology, Ningbo University School of Medicine, Ningbo, Clara Hiu-Ling Hung Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Department of Anatomy, LKS Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, Institute of Chinese Medicinal Science, University of Macau, Macau SAR, Yuen-Shan Ho School of Nursing, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR, Ruo-Jing Huang Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China Julio Huertas Allergy Section, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Cartagena, Murcia, Spain Carlos H. de Larramendi Allergy Section, Hospital Marina Baixa, Villajoyosa and Centro de Especialidades Foietes, Benidorm, Alicante, Spain Benson Wui-Man Lau Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, LKS Faculty of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, The University of Hong Kong,, Hong Kong Mason Chin-Pang Leung Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, Hong-Ying Li GHM Institute of CNS Regeneration and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Brain Function and Diseases, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Department of Anatomy, Jinan University School of Medicine, Guangzhou, Department of Ophthamology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Contributors xi The State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science and the Research Centre of Heart, Brain, Hormone and Healthy Aging, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peifei Li Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Pathophysiology, Ningbo University School of Medicine, Ningbo, Xiao-ang Li State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau SAR, People s Republic of China Yongliang Liu Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China Amy CY Lo Department of Ophthalmology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, María Angeles López-Matas R&D Department, Laboratorios LETI S.L., Madrid, Spain Xue-Song Mi Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China Department of Anatomy, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China María Muriach Unidad predepartamental Medicina, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón de la Plana, Spain Kai-Ting Po Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, Francisco J. Romero Universidad Católica de Valencia San Vicente Mártir, Valencia, Spain Department of Physiology, University CEU Cardenal Herrera, Valencia, Spain Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Universidad Católica de Valencia San Vicente Mártir, Valencia, Spain Francisco Javier Sancho-Pelluz Universidad Católica de Valencia San Vicente Mártir, Valencia, Spain Kwok-Fai So Department of Anatomy, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China GHM Institute of CNS Regeneration and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Brain Function and Diseases, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China xii Contributors The State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, LKS Faculty of Medicine, Research Centre of Heart, Brain, Hormone and Healthy Aging, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, George L. Tipoe Department of Anatomy, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, Ying Wang South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China Min Wu South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China Bingxiu Xiao Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Pathophysiology, Ningbo University School of Medicine, Ningbo, Jia Xiao Department of Immunobiology, Institute of Tissue Transplantation and Immunology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Di Yang Department of Ophthalmology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Shaohua Zeng South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China Xiaorui Zhang State Key Laboratory of Toxicology and Medical Countermeasures, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing, Yongxiang Zhang State Key Laboratory of Toxicology and Medical Countermeasures, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing, Hui Zhao Sunny BioDiscovery, Inc., Santa Paula, CA, USA Wenxia Zhou State Key Laboratory of Toxicology and Medical Countermeasures, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing, Chapter 1 Chemical and Genetic Diversity of Wolfberry Ying Wang, Hao Chen, Min Wu, Shaohua Zeng, Yongliang Liu and Jingzhou Dong Abstract Lycium (Boxthorn) is a genus of the nightshade family (Solanaceae), containing about 80 species of plants native throughout the temperate and subtropical zones of the world. Wolfberry nowadays in China refers to the products prepared from Lycium chinense, Lycium barbarum, and Lycium ruthenicum. Wolfberry has been consumed as food and medicine for more than 4000 years, and the cultivation of L. barbarum has been recorded for more than 600 years in the Northwestern part of China, especially Ningxia province which is also the authentic region of Chinese medicine, Lycii Fructus. This review will cover the history, cultivation, genetic diversity, and phytochemical diversity of these three species. High level of genetic diversity has been discovered in wild resources. Phytochemical diversity includes polysaccharides, carotenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, amides, peptides, anthraquinones, coumarins, lignanoids, terpenoids, sterols, steroids, organic acids, anthocyanins, essential oils, glycolipids, and others from leaves, fruits, and root bark of L. chinense, L. barbarum, and L. ruthenicum. Keywords Genetic diversity Phytochemical diversity History L. chinense L. barbarum L. ruthenicum, 1.1 Introduction Lycium (Boxthorn) is a genus of the nightshade family (Solanaceae), containing about 80 species of plants native throughout the temperate and subtropical zones of the world (Levin et al. 2011). They are mostly found in dry, semisaline Y. Wang ( ) H. Chen M. Wu S. Zeng South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China Y. Wang Y. Liu J. Dong Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015 R. C-C. Chang, K-F. So (eds.), Lycium Barbarum and Human Health, DOI / _1 1 2 Y. Wang et al. environments. Other common names include Wolfberry, Goji, Desert-thorn, Christmas berry, Matrimony vine, and Duke of Argyll s tea tree, as well as Gouqi in Chinese. Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010) recorded Lycii Fructus ( Gouqizi, dry fruit of Lycium barbarum), and Lycii Cortex ( Digupi, dry root bark of Lycium chinense and L. barbarum). Young leaves of L. chinense and L. barbarum are consumed as functional vegetable and functional tea. A wide range of wolfberry products have been developed, including tea, wine, cosmetic products, milk, coffee, juice, seed oil, etc. Dark purple color fruits of Lycium ruthenicum, also called Hei guo gou qi or black fruit wolfberry, have been used as folk medicine, especially as Tibetan and Mongolian medicine. Therefore, wolfberry nowadays in China refers to the products prepared from L. chinense, L. barbarum, and L. ruthenicum. Only Ning Xia Gou Qi (later on refer as Goji or Goji berry) in Chinese indicates specifically fruits of L. barbarum. Wolfberry has been consumed as food and medicine for more than 4000 years, and the cultivation of L. barbarum has been recorded for more than 600 years in the Northwestern part of China, especially Ningxia province which is also the authentic region of Chinese medicine, Lycii Fructus. This chapter will cover the history, genetic diversity, and phytochemical diversity of these three species. 1.2 History of Wolfberry Mr. Shizhen Li, the great pharmaceutical scientist in the Ming Dynasty, described the origin of the name Gouqi (later on refer as Goji) in his famous book Compendium of Materia Medica ( Ben Cao Gang Mu). He explained that Gouqi was a combination of Gou and Qi as the thorns of the Gouqi tree were like the ones of the Gou tree while the stems of the Gouqi tree were like the branches of the Qi tree. Goji has been in the Chinese culture for a long time. Its earliest record was found in the oracle bone script (Jiaguwen) of the Shang Dynasty, which indicates that Goji may have been recognized, cultivated, and utilized as early as in the Xia Dynasty which occurs about 4000 years ago The Medicinal and Culinary Culture of Goji Goji berries have long served as a good herbal tonic. There are many instances in Chinese history in which people become healthier and longer lived due to the tonic effect of Goji. Goji berry is one of the constituents of the three prescribed medicines with secret recipes in the period of the First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty (Qin Shihuang). Fang Xuanling, a famous prime minister in the Tang Dynasty once became exhausted in his body and mind due to overwork. However, he recovered well by keeping having the wolfberry tremella soup. In addition, Goji berries serve as one of the important constituents of two tonics fed by the Empress Dowager Cixi of the Qing Dynasty. 1 Chemical and Genetic Diversity of Wolfberry 3 The medicinal effect of Goji berries has long been recognized and appreciated by numerous medical scientists in the history of China. Shennong s Root and Herbal Classic ( Shennong bencao jing), a classic work on medicinal plants and their uses, is the oldest pharmaceutical work existing in China. This work was written and published in the periods from the Warring States to the Han Dynasty and recorded and summarized the medical and pharmaceutical knowledge in ancient China. In the 365 medicines recorded in this work, Goji berries fell into the top-class medicines which can contribute much to longevity. Based on the recorded research on Goji in the history, Li shizhen summarized the healthy and tonic effect of Goji in Compendium of Materia Medica. For instance, he found that many organs other than the Goji berries also possessed healthy and tonic effect. Therefore, different organs can be collected for medicinal use at different seasons. Specifically, the leaf, flower, fruit, and root of Goji can be collected in the spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively The Literature About Goji Goji has not only been used in cooking and health care, but also serving as the topic of many literatures like poems written in the palace banquets or the life in ancient China. For example, Classic of Poetry is the oldest existing collection of Chinese poetry comprising works in the periods from the Western Zhou Dynasty to the Spring and Autumn period dating from the eleventh to seventh centuries BC. There are seven poems involving Goji in this collection, six of which are in the poetry Xiaoya. Besides, many famous poets in ancient China, like Du Pu, Bai Juyi, and Liu Yuxi in the Tang Dynasty, Su Shi, Lu You, and Huang Tingjian in the Northern Song Dynasty, once wrote poems to appreciate Goji Zhongning: The Hometown of Goji in China Goji has long been cultivated in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in China. In the poem Beishan collected in Xiaoya, the author described experience to collect Goji berries in a place called Beishan. It has been verified that this place corresponds to several counties in the Zhongwei City currently, including the Haiyuan County and the Zhongning County, which indicates a long history for Goji cultivation in these places. The unique geographic environment and regional climate in the Zhongning County offer the most exceptional natural environment for cultivating Goji. Specifically, there is sufficient sunlight, high effective accumulated temperatures and large temperature difference between day and night; the soil in the alluvial plain contains a tremendous amount of minerals and plenty of humus and is mature enough; the Goji plants can be e
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