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Pennsylvania 4-H Forestry Judging Project Book. Our forests and our youth are Pennsylvania's greatest natural resources

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Pennsylvania 4-H Forestry Judging Project Book Our forests and our youth are Pennsylvania's greatest natural resources Pennsylvania 4-H Forestry Judging Project Book Page Introduction 2 Project Completion
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Pennsylvania 4-H Forestry Judging Project Book Our forests and our youth are Pennsylvania's greatest natural resources Pennsylvania 4-H Forestry Judging Project Book Page Introduction 2 Project Completion Guideline 2 Objectives 3 General Rules and Regulations 3 Forestry Written Examination 4 Tree Identification 5 Forest Health Insects 8 Forest Health Diseases 10 Topographic Maps 12 Compass and Pacing 15 Forest Evaluation 18 Scoring Method for Individual and Team Competition 31 Forestry Concepts and Facts 31 Glossary 36 References 40 This handbook was adapted from the National 4-H Forestry Invitational Handbook, 2008 Edition. Revised February The Pennsylvania State University is committed to the policy that all persons shall have equal access to programs, facilities, admission, and employment without regard to personal characteristics not related to ability, performance, or qualifications as determined by University policy or by state or federal authorities. It is the policy of the University to maintain an academic and work environment free of discrimination, including harassment. The Pennsylvania State University prohibits discrimination and harassment against any person because of age, ancestry, color, disability or handicap, national origin, race, religious creed, sex, sexual orientation, or veteran status. Discrimination or harassment against faculty, staff, or students will not be tolerated at The Pennsylvania State University. Direct all inquiries regarding the nondiscrimination policy to the Affirmative Action Director, The Pennsylvania State University, 328 Boucke Building, University Park, PA , Tel /V, /TTY. 1 Introduction Pennsylvania 4-H Forestry Judging is an activity (and a 4-H project) designed to teach youth about the fundamentals of forest management. Although it involves a state-level competitive judging event, its primary function is educational. Forest resources management is learned through participation in this activity. Additional benefits come from the development of leadership capabilities, meeting other youth interested in forestry, and interacting with forestry professionals from across the state. For older 4-H ers (14 years old as of January 1 of the current year) there are also opportunities to travel and compete at the national contest held in West Virginia each year (usually at the end of July). The information found in this handbook is provided for: 1) learning forest management concepts and skills, and 2) preparing participants for the state-level judging event. 4-H ers should have a familiarity with forestry before under-taking this activity. While Pennsylvania's 4-H Forestry books:treetop, Trees+Me=Forestry, and Advancing in Forestry provide an excellent background for this project, they are not entirely necessary to compete in this activity. A background in forestry through FFA, Envirothon, or Scouting may be sufficient. Project Completion Guidelines (For those 4-H'ers who wish to take this on as a 4-H project) To complete this project a 4-H er must study, prepare, compete at the state-level contest (activity), and then develop a poster about what was learned during the experience. This poster might include drawings, photos, forestry items, and possibly even certificates of accomplishment from the state contest. Everything should be labeled clearly and neatly. There should be a title on the poster, and the poster should depict one or several lessons learned through taking the project. Check with your County 4-H Agent for any poster size requirements that your county may have. For additional information about the state event, contact: Mr. David R. Jackson Dr. Sanford Smith ( Sandy ) Penn State Cooperative Extension Penn State University Willowbank Building, Room 322 Forest Resources Ext. 420 Holmes Avenue 7 Ferguson Building Bellefonte, PA University Park, PA Phone: Phone: Fax: Fax: Objectives The objectives of the Pennsylvania 4-H Forestry Judging Contest are to provide the opportunity and atmosphere for 4-H ers to: 1. Develop leadership talents and to work towards achieving character development and effective citizenship. 2. Develop desirable attitudes toward the need and importance of conserving woodlands as a source of renewable commodities, and important noncommodity benefits necessary for quality living. 3. Acquire information and understanding of practical forestry skills in forest management and the utilization of forest and wood products. General Rules and Regulations A. Senior Division contestants must be 14 years of age by January 1 of the year in which they are competing. Only Senior Division contestants are eligible to participate in the National Invitational. Nine to 13 year old 4-H ers will compete in a Junior Division. B. The following supplies will be needed by contestants - clip board, pencil, paper, compass and tree scale stick. Sources for the compass and tree scale stick include the Ben Meadows Co. at (800) , and Forestry Suppliers at (800) Tree scale templates are provided at the National 4-H Forestry Invitational web site (http://4hforestryinvitational.org/) and in the PA 4-H project book, Trees+Me=Forestry (2 nd edition). C. Field clothing is suggested, along with sturdy shoes. D. PA 4-H Code of Conduct will be followed. E. The state contest will consist of the following 5 events: 1. Forestry Written Examination (Quiz) 2. Tree Identification 3. Forest Health Insects and Diseases 4. Topographic Maps 5. Compass and Pacing 6. Forest Evaluation NOTE: The Tree Measurement and the Forestry Bowl, while included in the national manual, are not part of the state contest. Additional Information is available through the national invitational web site: 3 FORESTRY WRITTEN EXAMINATION Objective Contestants will be given an opportunity to demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of forestry information by completing a written examination. The examination will cover a broad spectrum of subject matter similar to the Forestry Bowl but will allow for more detailed questions since contestants will get to read them. Contest Rules 1. The examination will be an individual event with the score contributing to each individual participant's score and the team score. A maximum of 50 points is possible. 2. The examination may include multiple choice, fill-in-the-blank, matching, and discussion questions. One hour will be allowed for completion. 3. Discussion questions will be drawn from the following subject areas: forest management practices, forest health, forest regeneration, forest harvesting, and forests and society. References For Written Exam 1. Advancing in Forestry. 4-H Forest Resources Advanced Guide. Penn State Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 60 p. 2. Trees+Me=Forestry. 2 nd Edition. Penn State Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 60 p. 3. National 4-H Forestry Manuals - Units A, B, and C; available from the Training Materials and References section of the Invitational web site. (http://www.aces.edu/n4hfi/) 4. Forests and Forestry - 5th edition, by Holland and Rolfe Interstate Publishers, Inc., Danville, Illinois. 5. Refer to the Training section of the Invitational web site for information about the official trees, insects, and diseases. (http://4hforestryinvitational.org/) 6. National 4-H Forestry Invitational 2005 Handbook. USDA, Extension Service, 50 p. Only those species of trees, insects, and diseases listed in Tree Identification, Forest Health - Insects and Forest Health - Diseases will be addressed on the written exam. 4 TREE IDENTIFICATION Objective Contestants will learn to recognize and identify different tree species. This skill is valuable because tree species have varying requirements for growth, and differ in use and value. Contest Rules 1. Each contestant will have the opportunity to identify 10 trees as found in a natural outdoor condition or from branches or other parts displayed. All trees to be identified will be taken from the official tree list below. 2. Contestants will be judged on the accuracy of identification and the spelling of common names. Scientific names will not be required. Incomplete names, such as maple instead of red maple or redcedar instead of eastern redcedar, will be considered incorrect. Spelling, including capitalization, must be the same as that on the Official Tree List in order to be counted correct. 3. Contestants will be given a specific time to identify the tree specimens and record the information on the score sheet. 4. Five points will be given for the correct common name. One point will be deducted for each name misspelled. Common names must be those used in the official PA tree list. Maximum score for this event is 50 points. Official PA Tree List Common Name Scientific Name Gymnosperms (Conifers or Softwoods) balsam fir Abies balsamea Mill. white fir Abies concolor Lindl. eastern redcedar Juniperus virginiana L. tamarack Larix laricina K. Kock. white spruce Picea glauca Voss blue spruce Picea pungens Engelm. red pine Pinus resinosa Ait. pitch pine Pinus rigida Mill. eastern white pine Pinus strobus L. Virginia pine Pinus virginiana Mill. Douglas-fir Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco eastern hemlock Tsuga canadensis Carr. 5 Angiosperms (Broadleaf Trees or Hardwoods) striped maple Acer pensylvanicum L. boxelder Acer negundo L. red maple Acer rubrum L. silver maple Acer saccharinum L. sugar maple Acer saccharum Marsh. yellow birch Betula alleghaniensis Britton sweet or black birch Betula lenta L. paper birch Betula papyrifera Marsh. American chestnut Castanea dentata (Marshall) Borkhausen pignut hickory Carya glabra Sweet shagbark hickory Carya ovata K. Koch. flowering dogwood Cornus florida L. American beech Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. white ash Fraxinus americana L. butternut or white walnut Juglans cinerea L. black walnut Juglans nigra L. yellow-poplar or tuliptree or tulip-poplar Liriodendron tulipifera L. cucumbertree Magnolia acuminata L. black tupelo or blackgum Nyssa sylvatica Marsh. sycamore Platanus occidentalis L. quaking aspen Populus tremuloides Michx. black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. white oak Quercus alba L. scarlet oak Quercus coccinea Muenchh. chestnut oak Quercus Montana Willd. northern red oak Quercus rubra L. black oak Quercus velutina Lam. black locust Robinia pseudoacacia L. black willow Salix nigra Marsh. sassafras Sassafras albidum Nees. American basswood Tilia americana L. American elm Ulmus americana L. This list was cross-referenced and checked for preferred common names, spellings, and scientific names. The following reference was used as the official source for common names, scientific names and spelling: Little, Elbert L Important Trees of the United States. USDA Ag. Handbook 519, 70 pp. Tree Identification Web Site The Virginia Tech Dendrology web site is a suggested reference for training for the Tree Identification Contest. This web site can be accessed from the following web site: 6 PA TREE IDENTIFICATION SCORE SHEET Name No. Common Name Correct Contestant's Total Score Misspelled -1 Score 7 FOREST HEALTH - INSECTS Objective Contestants will learn to recognize and identify forest insects or evidence of insect damage. This is a valuable skill because most insects that damage tree affect only certain tree species or groups of related species. Insect epidemics can cause high dollar value damage in the forests. Contest Rules 1. Contestants will be required to identify 5 insects or examples of their damage. Specimens will be selected from those on the official list of insects below. 2. Contestants will be judged on the accuracy of identification and the spelling of the common names. Scientific names will not be required. Incomplete names such as caterpillar instead of eastern tent caterpillar will be considered incorrect. Spelling, including capitalization, must be the same as that on the Official List of Insects in order to be counted correct. 3. Contestants will be given a specific time to identify the insect or insect damage specimens. 4. Five points will be given for each correct common name. One point will be deducted for each name misspelled. Official Reference for Insects and Diseases The official reference for the Insect and Disease Identification Contests is the web site link for each insect or disease species listed on the Insect and Disease Identification web pages under the Training References section of the Invitational web site at: Official PA Insect List Common Name Asian longhorned beetle beech scale bronze birch borer eastern tent caterpillar emerald ash borer fall webworm forest tent caterpillar gypsy moth hemlock woolly adelgid locust borer locust leafminer pine needle scale red oak borer twolined chestnut borer white pine weevil Scientific Name Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) Cryptococcus fagisuga (Lind.) Agrilus anxius (Gory) Malacosoma americanum (Fabricius) Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) Hyphantria cunea (Drury) Malacosoma disstria (Hubner) Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus) Adelges tsugae (Annand) Megacyllene robiniae (Forster) Odontota dorsalis (Thunb.) Chionaspis pinifoliae (Fitch) Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman) Agrilus bilineatus (Weber) Pissodes strobi (Peck) 8 FOREST HEALTH - DISEASES Objective Contestants will learn to identify forest diseases and other forest health indicators. This is a valuable skill because most diseases that damage trees affect only certain tree species or groups of related species. Diseases can cause high dollar value damage in the forests. Not all indicators of forest health are diseases Specimens will be selected and displayed which are representative of diseases and damage. Contest Rules 1. Contestants will be required to identify 5 diseases, specimens of disease damage or other forest health indicators. Specimens will be selected from those on the Official List of Diseases and Forest Health Indicators. 2. Contestants will be judged on the accuracy of identification and the spelling of the common names. Scientific names will not be required. Incomplete names will be considered incorrect. Spelling, including capitalization, must be the same as that on the Official List in order to be counted correct. 3. Contestants will be given a specific time to identify the disease or damage specimens. 4. Five points will be given for each correct common name. One point will be deducted for each name misspelled. The common name must be the one used in the Official List of Diseases. Official Reference for Insects and Diseases The official reference for the Insect and Disease Identification Contests is the web site link for each insect or disease species listed on the Insect and Disease Identification web pages under the Training References section of the Invitational web site at: Common Name Artist s conk annossum root disease beech bark disease black knot brown spot needle blight cedar-apple rust chestnut blight dogwood anthracnose Dutch elm disease fusiform rust Hypoxylon canker nectria canker needle cast fungi oak wilt white pine blister rust Official PA Disease List Scientific Name 9 Ganoderma applanatum Heterobasidion annosum Neonectria faginata & Neonectria ditissima Apiosporina morbosa Scirrhia acicola Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae Endothia parasitica Discula sp. Ceratocystis ulmi Cronartium fusiforme Hypoxylon sp. Nectria galligena and N. magnoliae Hypoderma sp. and Lophodermium sp. Ceratocystis fagacearum Cronartium ribicola PA FOREST HEALTH INSECT and DISEASES SCORE SHEET Name No. Common Name Correct +5 Misspelled -1 Score Contestant's Total Score 10 TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS Objective Contestants will learn the following in this contest event: 1. how to identify different features on a topographic map by their symbols; 2. how to determine the length of a line established between two points on the map; 3. how to determine the bearing (line of travel) between the two points on the map using a mirror-sighting type azimuth compass; Topographic maps are frequently used in forestry as a tool for inventory and management of natural resources. It is important to be able to measure distances, locate property boundaries, and recognize natural and man-made features on these maps. Invitational contestants will learn how to apply their compass and pacing training in conjunction with the use of a 7.5 Minute Series topographic map. The scale on a 7.5 Minute Series map is 1:24,000. This means 1 inch on the map equals 24,000 inches or 2000 feet of actual distance on the ground. Where to Get Topographic Maps for Practicing Your Skills? Topographic maps were developed by the United States Government and can be ordered or downloaded from: The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) by visiting their website You can download maps for free from USGS by using their Map Locator and Downloader tool. While it may be possible to download the map you need, you might still want to order a paper copy. To download maps, you need access to a wide-scale printer. A standard printer using 8 ½ x 11inch paper is not sufficient for printing most topographic maps. These maps are designed to be printed on large pieces of paper. If you cannot print a map to the size and quality that you need, carefully determine the maps you want, and order hard copies. Directions are on the USGS website. Some outdoor stores also sell USGS topographic maps, and many public libraries make them available as reference maps. Contest Format and Rules 1. A mirror-sighting type azimuth compass will be provided for this event. Contestants will not be permitted to use their own mirror-sighting type azimuth compass. 2. The following additional equipment for the event is also provided: a. 7.5 Minute Series Maps (same map for all contestants) b. Rulers 3. The map used in the contest will have 5 symbols and/or features with arrows pointing to what needs identified. Each map symbol or feature is worth two (2) points for a total of ten (10) points 4. Only items from the following list of 21 topographic map symbols and features will be used in the contest: 11 Ridge Valley Peak Railroad Power Transmission Line Open Area Woodland Marsh or Swamp Perennial Stream Intermittent Stream Contour Line Quarry Primary Highway Unimproved Road Trail Bridge Building Spring or Seep School House of Worship Cemetery To train for this part of the contest, contestants may want to study the official training reference material on the National 4-H Forestry Invitational web site. 5. Contestants will measure the distance between the two points with a compass ruler. Using the feet scale at the bottom of the contest topographic map, the contestants will convert the measured distance on the map to the nearest 100-foot denomination, i.e., 900; 1,000; 1,100; 2,300, etc. This measurement is worth 10 points if answered correctly and 5 points if within plus or minus 100 feet. To study for this part of the contest, contestants may want to review the official training reference material on the National 4-H Forestry Invitational web site. 6. Contestants will determine the bearing (line of travel) between two points identified on the contest map using a mirror-sighting type azimuth compass provided by contest management. This bearing is worth 10 points, if within plus or minus 2 degrees of the correct bearing and 5 points if within plus or minus 4 degrees. To study for this part of the contest, contestants may want to check out the 4-H Orienteering Book and review the official training reference material on the National 4-H Forestry Invitational web site. 7. Contestants will determine the difference in elevation between two points identified on the contest map. Using the contour interval provided on the map, contestants will determine the elevation of two different points and then calculate the difference in elevation between them. For example, if point A is at 920 feet and point B is at 1260 feet, the change in elevation is 340 feet. This calculation is worth 10 points, if answered correctly. There
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