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Population monitoring of pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) by pheromone trapping at the southern limit of distribution of pinus halepensis in Eastern Algeria

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We monitored emergence dates of adults in order to assess local population density and to determine the life cycle of the Pine Processionary Moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Denis & Schif.). A series of 126 pheromone traps were placed randomly on
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  This article was downloaded by: [CERIST]On: 17 November 2013, At: 05:37Publisher: Taylor & FrancisInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: MortimerHouse, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK Forest Science and Technology Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tfst20 Population Monitoring of Pine Processionary Moth(Thaumetopoea pityocampa) by Pheromone Trappingat the Southern Limit of Distribution of Pinushalepensis in Eastern Algeria Chenchouni Haroun a   b  , Kamel Zanati b  , Abderrahmane Rezougui b  , Athmane Briki b  &Abdelkrim Arar ca  Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences , University El Hadj Lakhdar ,Batna , 05000 , Algeria E-mail: b  Forest Conservation of Batna City , Batna , 05000 , Algeria c  Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences , University El Hadj Lakhdar ,Batna , 05000 , AlgeriaPublished online: 24 Feb 2011. To cite this article:  Chenchouni Haroun , Kamel Zanati , Abderrahmane Rezougui , Athmane Briki & Abdelkrim Arar(2010) Population Monitoring of Pine Processionary Moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) by Pheromone Trapping at theSouthern Limit of Distribution of Pinus halepensis in Eastern Algeria, Forest Science and Technology, 6:2, 67-79, DOI:10.1080/21580103.2010.9671974 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21580103.2010.9671974 PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLETaylor & Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the “Content”) containedin the publications on our platform. However, Taylor & Francis, our agents, and our licensors make norepresentations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinions and views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors,and are not the views of or endorsed by Taylor & Francis. The accuracy of the Content should not be reliedupon and should be independently verified with primary sources of information. Taylor and Francis shallnot be liable for any losses, actions, claims, proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and otherliabilities whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to orarising out of the use of the Content.This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematicreproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in anyform to anyone is expressly forbidden. Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions  ForestScienceandTechnologyVol.6,No.2,pp.67~79(2010)  67  ForestScienceand Technology  PopulationMonitoringofPineProcessionaryMoth(  Thaumeto- poeapityocampa  )byPheromoneTrappingattheSouthern LimitofDistributionof Pinushalepensis  inEasternAlgeria  ChenchouniHaroun  1,2  *  ,ZanatiKamel  2  ,RezouguiAbderrahmane  2  ,BrikiAthmane  2  and ArarAbdelkrim  1  1  DepartmentofBiologicalSciences,FacultyofSciences,UniversityElHadjLakhdar,Batna05000,Algeria  2  ForestConservationofBatnaCity,Batna05000,Algeria  (ReceivedJune27,2010;AcceptedNovember29,2010)  Wemonitoredemergencedatesofadultsinordertoassesslocalpopulationden- sityandtodeterminethelifecycleofthePineProcessionaryMoth(  Thaumeto- poeapityocampa  Denis&Schif.).Aseriesof126pheromonetrapswereplaced randomlyontrunksofAleppopine(  Pinushalepensis  )locatedinthemajorforests ofBatnaCity(North-easternAlgeria).Weharvesteddailycontentsoftrapsinstalledat anaverageheightof1.70±0.30m,whereatotalof19,339maleswerecaptured fromJuly2008toAugust2008withanaveragecatchof153.5±179.4pertrap. Thus,pheromonetrapsprovidedanimportanttooltoassesspopulationdensity andrhythmsofadultflight.Inaddition,differentfindingsarediscussedsuchas mainfactorsinfluencingadultemergence.Thisstudywasbasedontheuseof matingdisruptionbymasstrappingtolimitfutureoutbreaksontheonehand,and toprovidedataontheexactdatesofadultemergencetomonitorfutureout- breaksandtousetheappropriatecontroltechniqueontheotherhand.Canonicalcorrespondenceanalysis(CCA)showedthatsitevariablesthatbestexplainedthe dataweretreeageandaveragestandheight.CCAanalysisindicatedthatalti- tudewasnotsignificantparameter.Factorsleadingtolateadultemergenceas wellasPPMlowdensitiesinsomeforeststationsarediscussed. Keywords:  algeria, Thaumetopoeapityocampa  ,pheromonetrap, Pinushalepensis,  monitoring,batna,forestpest,defoliation,outbreak  INTRODUCTION  Insectsmayhaveastrongandrapideffecton production,biodiversity,structureandcomposi- tionoftheforest(Rosenzweig etal., 2007).The pineprocessionarymoth(PPM) Thaumetopoea pityocampa  Denis&Schiffermüller(Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae)isthemaindefoliatingpestof pines(  Pinus  )inthewesternpartoftheMediterra- neanBasin,includingSouthernEurope,theBal- kansandNorthAfrica.Larvaefeedonawide rangeofpinespecies(Battisti,1988;Devkotaand Schmidt,1990)andalsootherconifers,suchas cedars(Démolin,1970;ZamoumandDémolin, 2005).DefoliationbyPPMreducestreegrowth (Hódar etal  .,2003;HódarandZamora,2004; Carus,2004;Kanat etal  .,2005),andifdefoliation issevereorrepeated,itcanleadtotreemortality, particularlywhenitislinkedtoorhappensafter droughtevents(Allen etal  .,2010).Therefore,the protectionofstandsrequiresregularapplicationof pestcontrolmeasures(DemolinandMillet,1981; MasuttiandBattisti,1990),involvingaerialspray- ingofinsecticidesorpreparationsof Bacillusthur- ingiensis  totargetlarvalstages(Zamoum etal  ., 1997;ZamoumandDémolin,2003).Recentcli- maticchangeshaveprobablyextendedtherange distributionofPPMtowardshigherlatitudesand altitudesinseveralMediterraneanregions(Hódar  etal  .,2003;HódarandZamora,2004;Battisti et al  .,2005;Battisti etal  .,2006;Robinet etal  .,2007;  *Correspondingauthor E-mail:chenchouni@yahoo.fr  ShortCommunication     D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   C   E   R   I   S   T   ]  a   t   0   5  :   3   7   1   7   N  o  v  e  m   b  e  r   2   0   1   3  68ForestScienceandTechnologyVol.6,No.2(2010)  Toffolo,2008)increasingtheneedforpestman- agementprograms.Theseprogramsrequirereli- ablepopulationdensitydatafrommonitoringand assessmentsurveysforeffectivesuppressionof PPMinfestations(Jactel etal  .,2006). Pheromonetrappinghasbeenconsideredfora longtimeasareliablemeanstomonitorpopula- tionsof T.pityocampa andtoexploregeneflowat extremesites(Salvato etal  .,2005;Jactel etal  ., 2006).Thepheromonetrappingmethodrelieson apositiverelationshipbetweentrapcaptureand localpopulationdensity(Thorpe etal  .,1993). Unfortunately,mostofthefieldstudiessofarhave failedtofindacorrelationbetweenthenumberof malescaughtinpheromonetrapsandlocalinfes- tationlevels,traditionallyexpressedasthenum- berofnestspertree.Jactel etal  .(2006),however, detectedapositiveandsignificantcorrelation betweenthenumberofmalesandthelevelof infestationinthefollowinggeneration.Thesefind- ingssuggestthatpheromone-baitedtraps,oper- atedaccordingtheframeworkproposedbyJactel etal  .(2006),provideasuitabletoolformonitoring of T.pityocampa populations.Inthispaper,wedescribethesituationofpopu- lationdensitiesof T.pityocampa intheextreme southerndistributionlimitof Pinushalepensis  in north-easternAlgeria,byanalyzingsurveyscar- riedoutbythedepartmentofForestConservation inBatnaCity.Weusedpheromonetrapcapturesas indicatorsofpopulationdensity.Ourmainobjec- tivewastodescribevariationinthedateofadult flightsof T.pityocampa  anditsdensitiesperpine standthatwouldprovideconsistentinformationfor futurecontrol. MATERIALANDMETHODS  Studysites  ThestudyareaislocatedinBatnaregion,which isahighmontaneregioninnorth-easternAlgeria. Itincludeslandscharacterizedbyhumid,sub- humidandsemi-aridclimates,acrossanaltitudi- nalrangebetween100and2,300m.Thestudy wasconductedonbothnaturalandplantedpine standsofBatnacitywhichhasanareaofapproxi- mately12,039km  2  ,about128kminlengthand 187kminwidth. Pinushalepensis  foresthasan areaofabout111,639ha(80%oftheplantedfor- ests)(DPAT,2007).Bothnaturalpineforestand pineplantationsarewidespreadinthisarea.Old naturalforestsofAleppopineareconcentratedin thesouthernregion,whiletheplantationsare locatedthroughouttheentireregion(Figure1). AccordingtoBensouiah(2004),theplantedfor- estsoriginatedfromthemid-'1970s,whenthe governmentlaunchedavastreforestationpro- gramcalled barragevert   “  greenbarrier  ”  (Figure  Figure1. MapoftheBatnaCityregion,north-easternAlgeria,showinglocationsofAleppopineforests,pheromone traps,andtowns.    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   C   E   R   I   S   T   ]  a   t   0   5  :   3   7   1   7   N  o  v  e  m   b  e  r   2   0   1   3  ChenchouniHaroun etal. 69  2).Woodlandsinthisregion(314,565ha)occur acrossabroadecotonelocatedbetweenthe SaharaDesertfromthesouthandMediterranean SeaontheNorthside.Moreover,thevegetationis verydiverseandmaintypesofdominanttreesare Aleppopine(  Pinushalipensis  ),Atlascedar(  Cer- dusatlantica  ),HolmOak(  Quercusilex  ),Prickly Juniper(  Juniperusoxycedrus  )andPhoenicean Juniper(  Juniperusphoenicea  )(QuézelandSanta, 1962;QuézelandSanta,1963;Abdessamad,1981).ThegeneralclimateistypicallyMediterranean withacontinentaltrend(semiaridareawithcoolwinter),butrangesfromthearidtothehumidcat- egoryofEmberger's(1955)classification.Precipi- tation,mostlyobservedinwinterandspring,is characterizedbyagreatinter-annualandinter- monthlyirregularity.ThecoldestmonthisJanuary (meanminimumtemperatureof-0.1°C,andmean maximumtemperatureof4.9°C).Thewarmest monthisJulywithmeanminimumtemperatureof 23.7°Candmeanmaximumtemperatureof36.2°C (Figure3). Duringthestudyyear(2008)annualrainfallwas 322.1mm,lowerthanthemeansobservedinthe last34yearsbyalmost28.7mm.Moreover,the distributionoftheseprecipitationswasirregular, sincemorethan75%ofrainfellduringfour months(Figure4).Long-termobservationsshowed thatlowestrainfallwasrecordedbetweenMay andSeptember,togetherwithrisingtemperatures andradiation,resultinastrongevaporative demand(Gaussen,1954). Phenologyofpineprocessionarymoth  ThePPMlivesinverydifferentenvironmentalconditions,asitfeedsondifferentplant-hostsuch as Pinus spp.and Cedrus  spp.  T  . pityocampa isa pestinmostMediterraneanpinewoodlands,and haslongbeenknowntoproducespectacularout- breaks,fromsealeveltoca.1,500minaltitude. (SeeDémolin1969a;HuchonandDémolin1970; Breuer etal  .,1989;MasuttiandBattisti1990; Hódar etal  .,2002;ZamoumandDémolin,2005; HouriandDoughan,2006formoredetailsonthe biologyofthespecies). AccordingtoJactel etal  .(2006) T.pityocampa  hasonegenerationperyear,characterizedby summeradultflight,femalestypicallyliveonlyone night,larvalfeedingduringfallandwinter,and  Figure2. Generalviewshowingplantedforestlandscapeof Pinushalepensis  inEl-Madher,Batna,Algeria. Treeshavemorethan35yearsoldwith2.5mofheight.(ByH.Chenchouni,2010).  Figure3. OmbrothermicdiagramofBagnoulsand Gausseninthestudysites,establishedfroma34- yearperiod(1974-2008).    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   C   E   R   I   S   T   ]  a   t   0   5  :   3   7   1   7   N  o  v  e  m   b  e  r   2   0   1   3  70ForestScienceandTechnologyVol.6,No.2(2010)  pupation(insoil)followedbyashort(untilthenext summer)orprolonged(upto3years)diapause. Larvaelivegregariously,firstbuildingsmallprovi- sionalnests(endofsummerthroughautumn), thenaconspicuouswintersilknestpositionedin thecrownperipherywheremostofthefeeding takesplace(lateautumnthroughearlyspring) (Figure5). Severalstudiesreportascattereddistributionof outbreaksinAlgeria,withusuallynomorethan twoyearsofstrongdefoliationinarow,after whichmostofthetreesrecover(Khemici etal  ., 1988;ZamoumandDémolin2003;Zamoumand Démolin2004;Chenchouni etal  .,2009). Sampling  Thesamplingdeviceconsistsofpheromone trapsusedformonitoringpopulationsofthePPM, intheframeworkofthenationalprogramtocom- batforestpestsbypestcontroltreatments.We used126syntheticpheromonetrapsforcatching adultsof T  . pityocampa  intheregionofBatna. Eachtrapwasequippedwithastripofsynthetic sexpheromonesofPPM.Tocatchandcount moths,anadhesivetapewasplacedinsideeach trap(Montoya,1984).Trapswereplacedran- domlyontrunksandbranchesof P.halepensis  standsatanaverageheightof1.70±0.30m.The trapswerecheckedandtheircontentswerecol- lectedeverydayfromJuly20  th  2008toAugust 30  th  2008.Wetriedtouseasufficientnumberof pheromonetrapsinscatteredforestof P.halepen- sis  tocoverallthepineforestareas(naturaland planted),takingintoconsiderationtheaccessibil- ityoftheterrainandavailabilityofdatagatherers (ForestersofForestConservationofBatnaCity) (Figure1).Sitelocationdetailsofeachtrapsuch asforestnatureandage,elevation,aspect,and heightoftrapfromtheground,wererecorded. Dataanalyses  Inordertoanalyzecatchdatawithinclimatic zonerangeandtemperaturevariations,evaluation ofbioclimaticzonesinBatnacitywascarriedout byaltitudinalcorrection(Attorre etal  .,2007)ofthe pluviometricquotient,Q  2  ,ofEmberger(1955),and thewintervariantmethodsuggestedbyEmberger (1955,1971).WeusedaDigitalElevationModel(DEM)forBatnaregionforinterpolationofclimatic data,takingintoaccountthevariationofprecipita- tion,maximumandminimumtemperaturesaccord- ingtotheelevationsandslopes(Attorre etal  .,  Figure4. Monthlyprecipitationamount(mm)anddailyvariationofminimum,mean,andmaximumtemperature(  o  C) recordedinBatnaduringtheyear2008.Verticaldiscontinuouslinesrepresentthestartandendofstudyperiod.  Figure5.  RepresentationofphenologiesofthebiologicalcycleinPPM(accordingtoHuchonandDémolin, 1970).     D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   C   E   R   I   S   T   ]  a   t   0   5  :   3   7   1   7   N  o  v  e  m   b  e  r   2   0   1   3
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