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Renewable Energy SMART Lessons: An Educational Approach to Energy Independence in Namibia



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Renewable Energy SMART Lessons: An Educational Approach to Energy Independence in Namibia An Interactive Qualifying Project Submitted to the Faculty of Worcester Polytechnic Institute In partial fulfilment
Renewable Energy SMART Lessons: An Educational Approach to Energy Independence in Namibia An Interactive Qualifying Project Submitted to the Faculty of Worcester Polytechnic Institute In partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degrees of Bachelor of Science and Bachelor of Arts By Timothy Consedine Emily DiRuzza Jessica Grabinsky Katherine Pelissari Date: 2 March 2017 Report Submitted to: Mr. Corris Kaapehi EduVentures Trust Professor Robert Kinicki Professor Sarah Wodin-Schwartz Worcester Polytechnic Institute This report represents work of WPI undergraduate learners submitted to the faculty as evidence of a degree requirement. WPI routinely publishes these reports on its web site without editorial or peer review. For more information about the projects program at WPI, see Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Tables... iii Table of Figures... iv Chapter 1: Introduction... 1 Chapter 2: Background Education in Namibia EduVentures Trust Climate Change and Renewable Energy Initiatives in Namibia Climate Change in Namibia Socio-Economic Impacts of Climate Change Vision Effective Environmental Education Techniques Environmental Education Challenges Elements of Successful Environmental Education Programs Environmental Education Case Studies Experiential Learning and Effective Teaching Techniques Curriculum Reform and Theory Curriculum Development Renewable Energy Topics Wind Energy Solar Energy Biomass and Bush to Electricity Summary Chapter 3: Methodology Guidelines Interviewing Classroom Observation Designing the Modules Important Considerations for Lesson Plan Development Perform Background Research Module Development Infuse Activities, Games, and SMART Technology i 3.2.6 Connection to Real World Problems Implementation and Modification of Lesson Modules Chapter 4: Conclusion Bibliography Appendix EduVentures Employee Interview Plan Appendix B: High School Learner Interview Plan Appendix C: High School Teacher Interview Plan Appendix D: Namibian Government Official Interview Plan Appendix E: Classroom Observation Forms (Modified from Murphy, 2013) Appendix F: Course Outline provided by EduVentures Appendix G: End of Day Survey ii Table of Tables Table : Climate-smart practices useful in smallholder agricultural production (Chioreso & Munyayi, 2015)... 7 Table : learners ability to determine the nature of energy sources (Zyadin, Puhakka, et. al., 2012) Table : Results of area, gender, and school type variables of the learners ability to determining the nature of energy sources (Zyadin, Puhakka, et. al., 2012) Table : Learners level of renewable energy knowledge: summary descriptive statistics (Zyadin, Puhakka, et. al., Table : Youth s perceptions of the value of protected areas (Kioko, 2010) Table : Relationship between level of schooling and stated reasons for wildlife conservation (Kioko, 2010) Table : Eight Phases of Curriculum Development (Cunningham, 2009) Table 3. 1: Anticipated Timeline of the Project Table : Interview Criteria (Ferguson, 2002) Table : Outline of interview Questions separated by overarching goal Table : Brief Outline of the Modules iii Table of Figures Figure : Structure of Namibian Education System (Chin, n. d.)... 4 Figure : EEP Thermal Biofuel Boiler (Namibia EEP-Africa, 2015)... 8 Figure Interlinking Issues that Threaten Namibia's Potential for Sustainable Development (National Planning Commission, Sustainable Resource Base, 2004)... 9 Figure : Percentage of learners enrolled in wildlife and environmental clubs (Kioko, 2010) Figure : the Kolb Cycle (Altered from Kolb, 1984) Figure : Comparison of Vertical (right) and Horizontal (left) Wind Turbines (Eco Energy, n.d.) Figure : The Wind Tree (Courtesy New Wind, n.d.) Figure : Main Types of Solar Panels Figure 3. 1: Map of Objectives Figure : Diagram of All Stakeholders Figure : Overview of Game Show game on SMART Exchange Figure : Example of a question from Game Show game Figure : An Example of a Fill in the Blank game through SMART Exchange iv Chapter 1: Introduction The strict rule of South Africa over Namibia before their independence barred most of the population from equal educational opportunities. In 1990, Namibia gained independence from South Africa and began its reform towards becoming a self-sustaining nation. Countries typically run into several challenges in regards to providing equal education to all citizens. The Namibian education system specifically faces a lack of resources, informed teachers, and a diverse population. The Ministry of Education in Namibia is designing a curriculum that is sufficient for both urban and rural school children. To develop as a nation towards complete independence, education must be one of the highest priorities (Kandpal, Broman, 2014). Along with the education barriers in the country, Namibia is reliant on other nations for electricity and power. The nation is consistently working to improve its self-sufficiency. Nonrenewable energy affects the economy, environment, and livelihoods of the citizens. To battle this problem, the government created Vision 2030: a plan to integrate renewable energy, improve education, and promote environmental protection. Solar, wind, and a form of biomass, called Bush to Energy, are ideal candidates for the nation s power sources because of their potential to improve the economy, create jobs, and reduce climate change effects. Vision 2030 aims to educate the Namibian population on renewable energy and improve the overall education system in Namibia. EduVentures Trust, a nonprofit organization, will implement renewable energy lesson plans in their solar-powered mobile classroom as a form of supplementary education. EduVentures mission is to further educate rural Namibian children on environmental topics, such as renewable energy and biodiversity. There is a large disproportionality of funds directed to successful urban schools than to rural schools. However, this divide between rural and urban schools is not unique to Namibia. The government of Jordan implemented a program to study renewable energy education in rural and urban students. The facilitators found that rural students knew significantly less than urban students in regards to renewable energy. Additionally, per a study conducted in Kenya in 2010, the prime age for environmental education is middle to high school age students. However, Namibia s curriculum only offers environmental education programs in grades 1-4. The learners, which is the Namibian equivalent to student in American terminology, are too early in their education to use this new information towards future job opportunities, such as technicians, engineers, or designers. The targeted age group is a massive impedance for learners because retention rates in Grades 1-4 are noticeably low. EduVentures acknowledges this mismatch in the curriculum, and only targets middle to high school age learners. EduVentures is the only organization in Namibia delivering mobile education to rural schools throughout the country, which causes the company to overstretch itself. EduVentures currently focuses solely on biodiversity, but wants to expand their program to include renewable energy curriculums. The purpose of this project is to assist EduVentures in developing four renewable energy modules to minimize the massive workload of the company and to aid in the expansion of their program. The modules are: Introduction to Renewable Energy, Wind Energy, 1 Solar Energy, and Bush to Energy. The success of this project depends on the fusion of environmental education techniques, and the needs of Namibian learners. The project team will interview several different stakeholders in the country such as: local high school teachers, government officials, EduVentures employees, and high school learners. Simultaneously, this study includes observing local high school settings to observe: structure, lesson plans, and teaching techniques. The group will then compile the information collected into informative and interactive lessons. The lessons will consist of PowerPoints, SMART technology, games, activities, and quizzes. The EduMobile classroom will then implement the modules, and the team will adjust the modules based on observations, quiz results and feedback from a student evaluation. 2 Chapter 2: Background This chapter provides educational approaches for increasing understanding and awareness of renewable energy in rural Namibian youth. The Namibian government hopes to eliminate international energy dependency by the year This chapter will further examine: Namibian Education EduVentures Trust Climate Change and Renewable Energy Initiatives in Namibia Effective Environmental Education Techniques Experiential Learning and Curriculum Building Renewable Energy Topics 2.1 Education in Namibia After gaining independence in 1990, Namibia s Ministry of Education overcame many obstacles. The apartheid rule that South Africa enforced on the citizens of Namibia led to severe disparities in the quality of education in Namibia between the various ethnic groups. The colonial education system did not satisfy the needs or goals of the newly independent Namibian people, as the content, teaching methods, and assessments were not up to date (Chin, n. d.). To satisfy these new standards, the Ministry of Education undertook a comprehensive reform process to increase access, equity, quality and lifelong learning (UNESCO, 2004). In response to many issues including education, social reform, and environmental degradation, the Namibian government created a national development agenda called Vision In regards to education, Vision 2030 s plan is to create, a fully integrated, unified and flexible education and training system, that prepares Namibian learners to take advantage of a rapidly changing environment and contributes to the economic, moral, cultural, and social development of the citizens throughout their lives (National Planning Commission, Section 4.3.3, 2004). The Ministry of Education implemented several changes already, with new curricula introduced in all grade levels, an increased effort to improve teacher qualifications, and improvements to scholastic infrastructure (National Planning Commission, Section 4.3.3, 2004). The new infrastructure follows a tiered learning process, with three main levels of learning each split into two sublevels (see Figure ). 3 Figure : Structure of Namibian Education System (Chin, n. d.) Primary education lasts seven years, divided into lower primary and upper primary levels. A learner begins grade one at the age of six, and completes their lower primary education in grade four, where they will proceed to upper primary education, grades five through seven (Ministry of Education, 2011). Once the learners complete their primary education, they move on to secondary education, which is split into junior secondary and senior secondary school. Junior secondary school comprises of grades At the end of 10 th grade, learners take an external examination to obtain the Junior Secondary Certificate (JSC) (Ministry of Education, 2011). This phase marks the end of required formal education in Namibia. Learners may continue to senior secondary level of education, which occurs in grades Learners must take an additional examination of their competence, the National Senior Secondary Certificate examination at either the Ordinary level (NSSCO) or the Higher Level (NSSCH). Upon the completion of these examinations, learners receive certificates of recognition of completion of primary education and may proceed to university-level education (Ministry of Education, 2011). Learners must apply to university should they decide to continue their education at a higher level. Once enrolled at a university, the learner becomes a student, and they complete their degree in a specific topic (Ministry of Education, 2011). While all schools in Namibia follow this tiered learning system, there are drastic differences between urban and rural school systems. Most rural schools lack qualified staff because most young educators prefer to teach in urban districts. Urban schooling also tends to have better managerial approaches, as they have the funds to send their principals and head staff to management workshops. Rural schools have poor managerial systems due to minimal government funding (The Namibian, 2007). Most the rural schools are also ill-equipped with necessary school supplies and technology. South African governance developed most of the 4 urban schools while Namibia was a colony. This results in urban schools having more opportunity to become equipped with necessary supplies and technologies. Urban schools have access to the internet and other technologies, which provide significantly better access to information centers (The Namibian, 2007). Another problem in most rural schools is a lack of access to information and little exposure to modern civilization. To fix this educational divide in Namibia, the following steps must take place: Reintroduction of incentives, such as reduced taxes for teachers, must occur to attract younger professionals to rural school districts Budget allocations for schools must consider the physical state of the schools, as well as the location of the school districts The government should provide internet access and subsidize computers for schools nationwide Regional offices must organize school tours (known as field trips), as some schools do not have the necessary funds The government should make it mandatory for all school administrators to undergo training to learn proper management skills. If the Ministry of Education can implement these steps, rural learners have the potential to obtain a comparable education to urban learners (The Namibian, 2007). The government of Namibia has several plans drafted to implement these changes in the future in the educational reform section of Vision 2030, as mentioned above (National Planning Commission, Section 4.3.3, 2004). 2.2 EduVentures Trust EduVentures Trust is a nonprofit organization that works in conjunction with the National Museum of Namibia and the National Institute of Educational Development. The mission of these organizations is to... provide environmental experiences for mainly disadvantaged Namibian youth whilst simultaneously contributing to the continued expansion of Namibian scientific knowledge and deepening the collective understanding of its natural and cultural heritage... (EduVentures, 2008). According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary disadvantaged refers to those who do not have access to some of the necessities of life such as proper housing, educational opportunities, and adequate medical care. EduVentures educates disadvantaged Namibian youths, grades 8-12, on a variety of educational subjects, specifically biodiversity and renewable energy. EduVentures Trust provides several learning opportunities, such as: web-expeditions, hands-on expeditions, fieldwork, individual projects, museum activities, and lessons in the mobile classroom. EduVentures bridges the gap between rural and urban learner exposure by providing fun, educational programs that cover a variety of topics in their mobile classroom. The goal of EduVentures is to inspire children from rural areas to pursue further education or careers in STEM fields. 5 2.3 Climate Change and Renewable Energy Initiatives in Namibia Namibia is one of the few countries in the world with the potential to become entirely powered by renewable energy (Munyayi, Ileka & Chiguvare, 2015). Specifically, Namibia is an ideal candidate for the implementation of wind energy, solar energy, and bush-to-energy initiatives. With the significant effects of climate change that the country battles daily, preparing Namibian citizens to transition to renewable energy for power will have several positive effects nationwide. This transition would not only enable the country to better counteract the effects of climate change, it would also reduce their dependence on foreign goods and promote job growth throughout Namibia Climate Change in Namibia According to Namibia s House of Democracy, climate change is, a change over long periods of time of temperature, precipitation, atmospheric pressure, and wind patterns on a global scale, (Lubinda, 2015). The natural causes of climate change include: earth s orbit around the sun, intensity of the sun s rays, circulation of the ocean and the atmosphere, and volcanic activity. Human contributions to climate change include burning fossil fuels, cutting down forests, and developing land. As the ozone disappears, surface temperatures rise, precipitation patterns change, and drought and flooding occurrences increase. (Jackson, 2017). Although Namibia is a small contributor of greenhouse gas emissions, the nation experiences massive climate change effects (Lubinda, 2015). Changing precipitation patterns, delay Namibian farming seasons and changing seasonal temperatures result in increased occurrences of drought and flash floods. Namibian communities whose livelihoods depend on natural resources, such as subsistent agriculturalists, undoubtedly feel the effects of these changes. Land degradation, jeopardizes agriculture, and since 70% of Namibia s population is part of an agricultural community, the government believes it is urgent to act and prepare the country for the anticipated future consequences of climate change (Lubinda, 2015). Namibia currently imports 80% of its energy from surrounding countries, but has the potential to become a country completely powered by renewable energy (Munyayi, Ileka & Chiguvare, 2015). The Namibian government recognizes this potential and, through the Ministry of Environment and Tourism (MET), implemented several policies that address different strategies to adapt to climate change and established four within the past decade: Established the National Climate Change Committee (NCCC), which functions as a federal advisory committee on climate change (Benyamin & Nantanga, n. d.) Developed the National Climate Change Policy, which outlined a comprehensive framework on climate risk management in accordance with Namibia s development agenda (Ministry of Environment & Tourism, 2011) Implemented the Disaster and Risk Management Act, which established institutions for risk management to plan for disasters such as flooding and drought (Republic of Namibia, 2012) NCCP created the National Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (NCCSAP), which exemplifies the goals of their organization by creating effective, efficient and 6 practical guiding principles that are responsive to climate change (Lubinda, 2015). Culminating these policies have laid the groundwork for nationwide change. If Namibia can maintain the traction that these initial changes have created, the country will continue to transition smoothly and efficiently to renewable energy technologies Socio-Economic Impacts of Climate Change As mentioned above, sustainable agriculture supports approximately 70% of Namibia s population (Chioreso & Munyayi, 2015). As such, agriculture plays a vital role in Namibia s economy. Constant drought and severe flooding due to climate change cause severe land degradation, leaving less than one-third available for agricultural purposes (Chioreso & Begbie- Clench, 2015). Since most of the population lives entirely off the land, and many suffer in poverty, this lack of usable land has become an increasingly problematic issue in Namibia (Chioreso & Begbie-Clench, 2015). The government has already begun to act to counteract this issue. One governmental plan integrates Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) into the economy. CSA contains three main pillars of sustainable development: economic, social, and environmental impacts. The CSA in Namibia aims to: sustainably increase agricultural productivity and income, adapt and build resilience to climate change, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Table depicts the g
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