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The Provincial Coins with Roman Temple From Izmir Museum: Features of Pediment and Order, The Journal of International Social Research,Volume: 6(Art History and Archaeology) Issue: 25, April, 2013



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The Provincial Coins with Roman Temple From Izmir Museum: Features of Pediment and Order, The Journal of International Social Research,Volume: 6(Art History and Archaeology) Issue: 25, April, 2013
    Uluslararası Sosyal Araştırmalar DergisiThe Journal of International Social ResearchCilt: 6 Sayı: 25 Volume: 6 Issue: 25-Prof. Dr. Hamza GÜNDOĞDU Armağanı-www.sosyalarastirmalar.com   Issn: 1307-9581   THE PROVINCIAL COINS WITH ROMAN TEMPLE FROM IZMIR MUSEUM: FEATURESOF PEDIMENT AND ORDEROnur GÜLBAY ∗∗∗∗  Murat KILIÇ ∗∗∗∗∗∗∗∗   Abstract During the ancient period, coins were used as a means of remembering,propaganda and advertisement, as well as their commercial uses like the coins of our time.Therefore, it is possible to find some symbols on the coins that call attention to the factsthat are impressed upon the history of a state or a city, such as legends about theirestablishments and religious beliefs.Temple models are symbols that were often used on the reverse of coins from theRoman Empire period, most of which were related to the imperial cult. In this regard, thestudy that we have carried out about the thousands of coins in the Izmir Museum 1 fromthe Roman period helped us determine the coins 2 with temple models that date back tothe 1 st and 3 rd centuries A.D., and examine these coins under a new title 3 . The detectedcoins are autonomous and pseudo-autonomous emissions introduced by several WesternAnatolian cities, such as Pergamon, Hypaipa, Magnesia ad Sipylum, Smyrna, Erythrai,Metropolis, Sardis, Perge, Ephesos, Samos, Attaleia and Philadelphia. We attempted tomake some evaluations and conclusions on the architectural features of the temples fromthe Roman Empire period following the examination of the temple models on these coins.The fact that the coins minted locally in Anatolia display the names of the cities isof great importance for defining the ownership of the structures represented by the templemodels. Keywords: Roman Temple, Coin, Pediment, Façade, Order.   Introduction Numismatics offers an insight into keeping the historical identity of structures alive,particularly forgotten temples, as is the case in many other fields. As the main title of the subject ∗ Lecturer, Ph. D., Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Letters, Department of Archaeology, İzmir/Turkey, e-mail:onur.gulbay@deu.edu.tr ∗∗ Lecturer, Ph. D., Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Letters, Department of History, İzmir/Turkey, e-mail:murat.kilic@deu.edu.tr 1 We would like to thank to the director of Izmir Museum Mehmet Tuna and the archaeologists Nuray Çırak, ElifErginer and Esra Er Çakıroğlu who are responsible for the museum’s coin division, for their support and contributionsduring this study. 2 All of the selected coins were registered to the inventory of the museum by the procedure of confiscation. 3 In the article, only the coins different from the ones in the same group were mentioned and all of the coins werementioned in the catalogue section.    - 257 -issue, the temple models 4 imprinted on the coins have been examined in stylistic terms andincluded architectural elements into relevant studies carried out in the same field.As well as their commercial functions, coins are one of the most important instrumentsfor cherishing the memory of an event. These materials provide valuable information in termsof the subject matter, particularly under the four titles listed below:1. Important cult structures of the city.2. Temples existing before the Roman period and later combined with theimperial cult.3. Defining the façade and general architectural designs of the temples.4. Obtaining information on the centuries when common architectural orderswere employed in archaeology.All of the items listed above define the inferences made from the temple models on thecoins. Considering some of the samples, it is clear that the srcinal view of the structure waschanged in order to fit the temple model on the coin or to show the cult statue. Therefore, theirreliability in terms of real architectural data should be discredited. The Provincial Coins with Roman Temple1. Ionia1.1. Ephesos: (Cat. No.1-6) Among the examined coins, emissions belonging to the cityof Ephesos date back to the reign of Vespasian and Caracalla. The obverse of the provincialcoins minted during the reigns of Vespasian and Hadrian include the portraits of theseemperors, while there is a model of the Ionic temple of Artemis Ephesia on the reverse (RPC II,1067; SNG Cop. 389; Metcalf, 1980: no. 46, Cat. No. 1-3). The temple model on these emissions isin a simple tetrastyle, rather than the srcinal octastyle structure.On the emissions minted during the reign of Antoninus Pius, octastyle was thepreferred architectural order by preserving the srcinality of the structure, instead of a tetrastyletemple model (SNG Cop.397; Cat. No. 4-5). The common feature of these depictions is anarchaic cult statue of Artemis in the middle of the frontal columns of the temple façade.However, on the coins discovered in Ephesos thus far, Artemis has never stood on a Syrianpediment (arcuated lintel) (Trell, 1945: 48-49). The reason for this must be related to the loyaltyto the architectural traditions of Hellenistic temples and fashion. 1.2. Metropolis:   (Cat. No. 7) The excavations carried out in Metropolis so far have failedto submit concrete findings for detecting the location of the temple of Ares, whose existence hasbeen proven by data from numismatic and epigraphic sciences (BMC Ionia, 176, no. 8, 11;Imhoof-Blumer, 1901: 83, no. 7-8; Robert, 1949: 73-77; Meriç, 1982: 56-58; Engelmann, 1993: 171;Aybek, Meriç and Öz, 2009: 131-132). Nonetheless, the fragments of column drums on which 4 Temple models are addressed under a separate title in numismatics. One of the most comprehensive studies on thisissue belongs to Pick. The question on the existence of temple models on the coins by Benndorf encouraged Pick torevise the numismatic material. The researcher states that the previous study titled “Beiträgen zur Kunstgeschichte des frühen Mittelalters” by Schlosser dealt with a few coins on which Gods are represented with temple models, but theevidences could not be fully presented. The study claims that only Mionnet and BMC, which he considers as an elitecatalogue, can be regarded as examples (Mionnet, T.E. (1806–1813). Description de Médailles Antiques, Grecques etRomaines 1–7  . Paris: De l’Imprimerie de Testu; BMC = Head, B.V. (1892). Catalogue of the Greek Coins of Ionia . P.R. Stuart(ed.) London: The Trustees of the British Museum; Pick, 1904: 1). In his article, Pick examines both the Gods in thetemple models on the provincial coins, particularly Smyrna, Lesbos, Nicomedia, Perinthos, Ankyra, Tarsus,Philippopolis, Kolybrassos, Aigai and Side and other temple models in connection with the imperial cult. Anotherimportant study in this area is the publication titled “The Temple of Artemis at Ephesos” by Bluma L. Trell. In thisstudy, temple models on the coins discovered in Western Anatolia cities from the Roman period and their features areaddressed.    - 258 -the names of Ares’ priests and priestess are written in the style of letters from the lateHellenistic period prove the existence of this early temple (Aybek, Meriç and Öz, 2009: 131-132).Hellenistic coins do not provide any information about the temple. In spite of that, themodel representing the temple of Ares (Kraft, 1972: 138, Taf. 28, no.171; Cat. No. 7) on thereverse of Metropolis provincial coins dating back to the reign of Gallienus indicates that theTemple has a Syrian-type pediment(arcuated lintel) and a tetrastyle frontal order. The templeof Hadrian, which still exists in Ephesos as an architectural structure, is one of the most uniquetemples known in this style in the region, dating back to 118/119 and 128/132 A.D. and with aSyrian-type pediment (arcuated lintel) (Wörrle, 1973: 477; Lang-Auinger, 2010: 191-196).A model belonging to the Temple of Ares, which was observed for the first time on theMetropolis provincial coins as of the third quarter of the 2 nd century A.D., proves the existenceof a temple in Metropolis that was built in honor of Ares (Robert, 1949: 73-77). 1.3. Smyrna: (Cat. No. 8-10) Epigraphic and numismatic findings show the importanceof the Tyche cult in Smyrna as of the 3 rd century B.C. 5 Tyche, one of the most common figuresthat is observed on the coins of Smyrna, can be found on provincial coins from the RomanEmpire period, mostly in a tetrastyle temple model in the Corinthian order ((Klose, 1987: 34, seealso: Faustina   II: Taf. 41, R 12–15, Luc.   R 3–6; Nero: Taf. 1, R 12–17; Gordianus: Taf. 14, R 16–20).The reverse of the coins, dating back to the reign of Gordian III have the same embossedstyle 6 (Cat. No. 8-10). Occupying a significant place in terms of urban identity, temples of Tychewere positioned at the Palm Grove in Smyrna and at the Agora in Corinth (Edwards, 1990: 529–531). An inscription (Petzl, 1987: no. 697) discovered in Smyrna explains that a temple of Tychewas planned to be built by Prytanis Smaragdos in the Palm Grove within the scope of extensivepublic works during the reign of Hadrian. Frequent depictions of the model representing theTyche Temple on the coins, as of the beginning of 3 rd century A.D., should indicate that theconstruction of this temple was already completed, which was srcinally planned to beperformed in the 2 nd century A.D. (Kılıç, 2011: 85).Today, the exact location of the temple of Tyche cannot be pinpointed precisely inancient Smyrna, due to modern settlements. However, archaeological findings give rise toestimations. For instance, the marble Tyche portrait (Şahin and Taşlıalan, 2010: 213) on thekeystone, which was discovered in the Agora of Smyrna and dates back to about 180 A.D., is aproof that may explain that the temple of Tyche was located near Agora (Kılıç, 2011: 86). 1.4. Erythrai: (Cat. No. 11) On the reverse of “Cat. No. 11”, minted during the reign ofElegabalus, there is a tetrastyle temple model with a Syrian-type pediment(arcuated lintel)depicted by the cult statue of Heracles standing in the middle of the façade columns. It is clearthat this model, representing Herakleion, was attempted to be shown in Ionic order.The cult of Heracles in Erythrai was recognized in ancient times (Bayburtluoğlu, 1965:127-129; Bayburtluoğlu, 1975: 8, 23-25, 51-53). Addressing Herakleion in the city and the Templeof Athena in Priene together, Pausanias concluded that both structures would evoke admirationamong the visitors (Paus . Descr. 7.5.5). Today, it is estimated that the archaeological findings ofthe Ionic temple, most of which are situated in the southern slopes of Ildırı-Değirmentepe, arearchitectural fragments of the archaic Herakleion that is assumed to be located by the sea(Akurgal, 1988: 396; Akalın, 2008: 151; Akalın, 2010: 348). If such assumptions were true, itwould not be wrong to say that Herakleion, built in the Ionic order, may have existed duringthe Roman Empire period. 5 Tyche is included in the names of the Gods listed in the oath pertaining to the Sympoliteia agreement concludedbetween Smyrna and Magnesia, dating to the 3rd century B.C. See for more information about the existence of theTyche cult in Smyrna (Petzl, 1987: nos. 613a, 760, 761). 6 Moreover, the name of Strategos Pollianus, known for his activities in the city as of the 3 rd century B.C., can beobserved on the reverse of the coin. This coin type was minted as homonoia as a result of the agreements concludedamong Philadelpheia, Thyateira and Tralleis during the reign of Pollianus (Pick, 1904: 5).    - 259 - 1.5.   Samos:   (Cat. No. 12) Herodotos mentions that the first architect of the temple ofHeraion in Samos was Rhoikos of Samos (Herodot. Hist. 3.60). The excavation work proves thatreconstruction of the Rhoikos temple, which was burnt, might have been started by Polykratesin the second half of 6 th century B.C.   The stylobate of the temple is about 54.58 x 111.50 metersand has a dipteral plan like Artemision of Ephesos.The Temple of Heraion in Samos Island was one of the biggest temples in the region, inthe octastyle. Yet, the temple model depicted on the coins from the Roman period is tetrastylewith a Syrian pediment 7 (arcuated lintel). Such depictions can often be observed on coins datingback to the 3 rd century A.D. (SNG Cop Ionia, 1776, 1768, 1770, 1779). The temple model on thereverse of “Cat. No. 12” is of such form (SNG Cop Ionia, 1796). The excavation work carried outin Samos revealed that a peripteros had been built between the altar and the temple during theRoman Period after the main temple was destroyed in the Roman Period (Drew-Bear, 1974: 39-40; Trell, 1945: 33-35, pl. XXIII, XXIV). The tetrastyle structure with a Syrian-type pediment(arcuated lintel) depicted on the coins must have been the new peripteros in which the Herastatue, which was displaced following the destruction of the main temple during the Romanperiod, was positioned (Trell, 1945: 34-35). The high-polos structure of the cult statue of Heralocated in the middle of the façade columns of the temple was shown inside the pediment as inthe case of Hypaipa. As can be understood, this temple model emphasizes the small peripteroswith Syrian-type pediment (arcuated lintel) as a continuation of the Hera cult that was builtduring the Roman period, rather than the srcinal temple. 2. Mysia2.1. Pergamon:   (Cat. No. 13-17) Temples were built for Rome and Augustus inPergamon (29 B.C.), for Tiberius, Livia and Senate in Smyrna (26 A.D.) and for Apollon andCaligula in Miletus (40 A.D.) during the dynasty of Julio Claudian. Rome was the one whoreceived applications for building these temples and establishing provincial cults as of the reignof Augustus. Through this official policy, Pergamon was allowed to build the the earliesttemple in the name of Rome and Augustus in 29 B.C. The provincial temple of Rome andAugustus was established in Pergamon in 27 B.C. Smaller imperial temples were built in Asia,in the main cities of Ephesos and Nicaea for the Romans, on account of the superiority of theaforementioned temple (Cass. Dio, Hist. Rom. 51.20, 6–7; Reid, 1913: 378; Dräger, 1993: 34; Price,2004: 127–128; Thomas, 2007: 129).The examined emissions of Pergamon present the models that represent the temples ofAugustus and Trajan cults. Some coin types minted during the reign of Augustus show threedifferent models as diastyle, (Cat. No. 13) tetrastyle (Cat. No. 14, 16-17) and hexastyle (Cat. No.15). While the cult statue of armored Augustus involves the diastyle and tetrastyle order, therewas no need for the hexastyle order.“Cat. No. 13” is a homonoia coin minted collectively in Pergamon and Sardis (Dönmez-Öztürk, 2006: 116). On the reverse of the coin, a diastyle temple model in the Ionic order isdepicted, which stands on a three-step podium and has acroter on the edges of the pediment. Inthe middle of the façade columns of the temple is a cult statue of an armored Augustus (Fritze,1910: 94, 100, Taf. IX, no. 13).A tetrastyle temple can be seen in another emission that was minted in the reign ofAugustus and that represents the imperial cult. In the provincial coin pertaining to thisemission, Proconsul M. Plautius Silvanus, crowned by demos, was seen on the obverse (Fritze,1910: 94, 100, Taf. VIII, 11; Cat. No. 14). On the reverse, a statue of Augustus holding a spear intetrastyle and within the scope of the Corinthian order temple model decorated with acroter isdepicted (SNG Cop Mysia, 519). This model is also observed on coins minted during the reigns 7 It is interesting that Vitruvius believes that the Temple of Heraion in Samos belongs to the Doric order, rather than theIonic order. See: Vit, De Architec .VII. 12.    - 260 -of Tiberius and Trajan and it is assumed to represent the provincial temple (Cat. No. 16-17)where Augustus’ birthday celebration was held (Radt, 2001: 42). Nevertheless, as stated above,construing the temple model depicted on the coin as the provincial temple of Rome andAugustus would be more appropriate.Along with the diastyle and tetrastyle models representing the provincial temple ofRome and Augustus, the hexastyle temple model is seen in another emission. The obverse of“Cat. No. 15” of this emission reveals the bust of Augustus, while the reverse depicts ahexastyle temple model standing on a four-step podium (Fritze, 1910: 94, 100, Taf. VIII, no. 14).However, unlike the other two models, a cult statue was not depicted in the middle of thetemple. Therefore, it becomes difficult to say that the temple model represents the provincialtemple of Rome and Augustus.In an emission minted during the reign of Trajan, there are models representing bothtemples of the imperial cult. On the obverse of “Cat. No. 17” of this emission, a cult statue of anarmored Augustus holding a spear within the tetrastyle temple model with a capricorndepiction on its pediment was displayed. On the reverse, despite the difference in details, thesame depiction style was used in the design showing Trajan. The temple of Trajan, depicted intetrastyle here, is srcinally a Corinthian hexastyle temple and was completed as a wholeduring the reign of Hadrian (Radt, 2001: 210). The tetrastyle depiction of this structure verifiesthe fact that the srcinal structure is not copied exactly in such designs, as also underlinedbefore. Consequently, as the main aim is to emphasize the existence of the temple, it is seen thatdetails such as the number of columns and order were not paid much attention. 3. Pamphylia3.1. Perge:   (Cat. No. 18-25) In the Izmir Archaeology Museum, eight coins with templemodels were detected among the Perge provincial coins. On the reverse of these coins, despitethe difference in details, a cult statue of Artemis Pergaia 8 within diastyle temple models in Ionicor Corinthian order 9 is seen. It probably was at least hexastyle, with six columns, but the centralcolumns were omitted by the coin engraver to better show the cult statue (Tameanko, 1999:210). For the first time during the reigns of Geta and Caracalla, the cult statue was representedwith a crescent and star above both sides. From that period onwards, these symbols can be seenon most of the coins (Mackay, 1995: 2068; see: Cat. Nos. 18-21, 23). It is understood that theobjects surrounding the cult statue in the reigns of Gallienus, Salonina and Elegabal wereburning torches; the column capitals are unclear (Cat. No. 19). In all of these coins, the eagle onthe pediment is replaced with the letter A. In the coins minted during the reign of Aurelian, theobjects in the sides are apparently torches and the letter ∆ appears on the pediment of thetemple (Mackay, 1995: 2069; Cat. no. 25). An eagle was not always depicted on the pediments ofthe temple models 10 . Acroters are never definite and the one in the middle is understood to bepalmette 11 as well (Mackay, 1995: 2070). As depicted on the coins, it is currently impossible todetermine whether one of these features of the temple was copied from the srcinal structure.Among the coins examined, on the reverse of Cat. No. 25 the phrase, “Neokoroi of thePergaians” was written above the temple where the cult of Artemis was depicted (Filges, 2008:479-484). During the reign of Vespasian, Perge is known to have taken the title of “neokoros” 8 Artemis Pergaia type is known to exist on the coins of Perge as of the 2 nd century BC (Onurkan, 1969: 302). In his worktitled the Life of Apollonios of Tyana, Philostratus mentions that hymns were chanted in the honour of Artemis Pergaiain Aiolis and Pamphylia styles (Philostr .,   Life of Apollonius of Tyana, 1.30). Today, the location of Perge Artemis templehas not yet been determined. However, Strabo (14.4.2) states that the temple is located in an upland area near the city.Pseudo-Scylax ( Periplous, 99) also refers to the temple. 9 Mackay thinks that the moulders of the 2nd or 1st century BC possibly knew the temple in Ionic order (Mackay, 1995:2069). According to him, the changes occurring as of the reign of Trajan might have been a guide for the moulders whodid not know the city well. Therefore, the craftsmen applying what is apparent might have tended to exercise thechanging trend. 10 Temple models on the coins of Perge display two types of temple pediments: “triangular” and “arched”. 11 In some coins, side acroters are also the same.
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