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671)e C A FISHERIES RESEARCH BOARD OF CANADA Translation Series No ZooPlankton in 55 lakes of the Wirthern Latvian SSR by Z.K. Kalninya Original title: Zooplankton 55 ozer vostochnoi chasti Latvivskoi
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671)e C A FISHERIES RESEARCH BOARD OF CANADA Translation Series No ZooPlankton in 55 lakes of the Wirthern Latvian SSR by Z.K. Kalninya Original title: Zooplankton 55 ozer vostochnoi chasti Latvivskoi SSR prom: Trudy Karel t skogo Otdeleniva GosNIORKh. (Proceedings of the Karelian Branch of ÇosNIORKh), 5(1) : , 1967 Translated by the Translation Bureau(JA) Multilingual Services Division Department of the Secretary of State of Canada Department of the Environment Fisheries and Marine Service Freswater Institute Winnipeg, Man pages typeecript ..DEPARTMENT OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE TRANSLATION BUREAU MULTILINGUAL SERVICES DIVISION CAN ADA SECRÉTARIAT D'ÉTAT BUREAU DES TRADUCTIONS DIVISION DES SERVICES MULTILINGUES CLIENTS NO. DEPARTMENT DI visi on/branch CITY NO DU CLIENT MINISTRE DIVISION/DIRECTION VILLE Environment Office of the Editor/ Fisheries Service BUREAU NO. LANGUAGE TRANSLAToR (I NI TIALs) NO DU BUREAU LANGUE TRADUCTEUR (INITIALES) Ottawa Russian JA FEB Trudy:Karerskogo Otdeleniya GosNIORKh (Publications of the Karelian Branch, State Scientific Research Institute of Lake and River Fisheries), 5, No. 1, 1967, pp UNEDITED TAANZLATIoplankton in 55 lakes of the northern Latvian SSR For infonmeion oey 'TRADUCTION NON REVISEE. by Z.K. Kalninya (UsSR). information seulement The investigations of zooplankton are a part of a study conducted by the Hydrobiological Laboratory, Institute of Biology of the Academy of Sciences of the Latvian SSR. The present report is based on zooplankton material of 55 lakes distributed throughout the eastern part of the Latvian SSR. The zooplankton was collected during multidisciplinary hydro-biological expeditions- during the summers (July-August) of and 1963, and during the winters. (March-April) of 1963 and On the basis of data obtained regarding the qualitative and quantitative composition of the zooplankton, it is possible to divide the lakes of the northern area of the Republic into three groups. To the first: group belong 12. mesotrophic lakes. with an area of 50 to 158 hectares, an average depth of less than 10m, and maximum depths from 15, to 45 meters (Lakes Yuveris, Ushuri, Skuyas, Rayskuma, Garona, Leyshu, Lauku, Mâzays Baltinya, Raypalyu, Dzil'ezers, Riebezers and' Riebinya). Tienumbers in. the right-hand margin correspond to the pages in the original. SOS ' -2- The average zooplankton biomass of these lakes during the summer is 1.123g/m 3 ; the abundance of organisms, 99.9 M specimens/m 3 (Table 1). TABLE I Variations in the Quantitative compositiono the zooplankton Groups of lakes glimmer Pèriod Quantity, specimens/m 3 Biomass g/m 3 Period of I Freeze-overi Summer Period Win ter Period 1st Group 2nd Group 2) 3) 3rd Group 12,7-183,2 9,9-482,4 108,5-420,7 65,8-381,1 9,9-482,4 21,22-127,1 4,2-33,6 0,0-47,6 1,4-72,4 0,521-2,759 1, ,729 5, ,729 3,037-4,506 1,008-2,987 0,192-2,745 0,070-0,542 0,000-0,567 0,003,7.1,034 The exceptions are Lakes Yuveris, Ushuri, Skuyas and Rayskuma, being transitional between mesotrophic and eutrophic in which the biomass of zooplankton is greater (Table 2). It varies from to g/m 3 (on the average consists of 1,644 g/m 3 ); in the remainder, from to g/m3 (ay g/m3 ). During the freeze-over period, the zooplankton biomass of Lakes Yuveris, Ushuri, Leyshu, Lauku, Mazays Baltinya, Riebezers and Raipalo is 6 times smaller than that of the summer period. The copepods Eudiaptomus and Mesocyclops make up the basic biomass of the zooplankton (Table 2). Thus, in Lake Raipalyu, Eudiaptomus graciloides compromises 55% of the total zooplankton biomass. Also, various species of cladocera are significant in the biomass,of zooplankton. Thirty-two eutrophic lakes, in which the average summer zooplankton biomass is g/m 3 and the abundance of organisms is M specimens/m 3 (Table 1), can be classed in the second group. A predominence of cladocera is characteristic of this group of lakes (Table 2). -3- The lakes of the second group can be further divided into three sub-groups: Sub-group 1 These are lakes with a rich abundance of zooplankton (Table 1). To this sub-group belong 5 lakes with an area of 50 to 127 hectares, with an average depth of about 2 meters and a maximum depth of less than 5 m. (Lakes Gusenu, Vilyakas, Lielais Bayzes, Dumblyu, Strody). All the lakes are small with a wall-developed, soft vegetation. During the summer, the average zooplankton biomass is g/m 3, and the abundance of organisms is M specimens/m 3. Characteristic of these lakes is a common occurrence of cladocera (Sida crystallina, Polyphemus pediculus). Thus, in the shallow, evenly heated Lake Strody, where the pondweed Potamogeton lucens grows in large quantities, the phytophilous Sida crystallina makes up 88% of the total biomass of the zooplankton organisms. In Dumblis, the same type of lake, Sida crystallina makes up 40% of the total zooplankton biomass, and Polyphemus pediculus, 56%, while in Lake Vilyakas, Bosmina crassicornis and Peracantha truncata appear together with Sida. Sub-group 2 These are lakes rich with zooplankton. Nine lakes with areas of 50 to 272 hectares belong to this sub-group (Lades, Indzeru, Sudalis, Muizhnieku, Putrinya, Saruma, Augulienes, Grunde, Sasalyu). The greatest depth of these lakes is less than 10 meters, the average being about 3-4 meters (with the exception of Lake Sudalis). In the littorals of the lakes, soft and rigid vegetation is well developed. During the summer, the average biomass of zooplankton is 3.9 g/m3 -4- and abundance is M specimens/m 3. A profuse development of cladocera (Ceriodaphnia sp..sp., Sida cryatallina) and also copepods (Eudiaptomus) is characteristic of these lakes. Thus in Lake Sasalyu, specl_es of the genus Ceriodaphnia comprise 40Z of the total zooplankton biomass, and Eudiaptomus graciloides, 27%. In lake Muizhnieku species of Ceriodaphniagive 39% of the total biomass and Eudiaptomus graciloides, 17%. Sub-group 3 These are lakes with an average abundance of zooplanktou. Eighteen lakes, with areas ranging from 50 to 387 hectares, an average depth of 2-5 meters, and maximum depths of 5-10 meters, belong to this sub-group (Dunyu, Aiyazhu, Perkonu, Klautsanu, Ages, Ostrovna, Trsha, Tsimelya, Svatavas, Rustegu, Ludzis, Baidavas, Niedrayu, Subates, Araishu, Asteres, Lielezers-Limbazhu, Balvu). The average summer zooplankton biomass of these lakes is g'/m 3, and the abundance of organisms is M specimens/m 3. In the above lakes, the basic cdmponents of the zooplankton are cladocera (Bosmina coregoni, Diaphanosoma brachyurum, Ceriodaphnia sp. sp.) and copepods (Eudiaptomus). In Lake Klautsanu, Bosmina coregoni makes up 24%, and Diaphanosoma brachyurum, 14% of the total biomass. In lake Balvu, Diaphanosoma brachyurum comprises 14% of the total zooplankton biomass, and Eudiaptomus coeruleus, 38%. During the freeze-over period, the average zooplankton biomass (0.168 g/ 3 ) in the second group (Vilyakas, Balvu, Lades, Indzeru, Sudalis, Saruma, Rustegu, Perkonu, Vaidavas, Ludzis, Niedrayu, Lielezers-Limbazhu, Klautsanu) is 41 times smaller than the summer biomass. -5- Quantitative composition of zooplankton Rotatori Cladocera Copepodp TABLE 2 Total NAME OF 'AKE DATE Co 0.1 M specimens /m3 co 0 ri ri Co (oo (1) re 0 si-sà cog t.) al Strody Dumblis L. Bauzis Vilyakas It Gusena Sasalyu Grunde Augulienes Saruma 111 Putrinya :Muizheeku Sudalis Indzeru it Lades ti Os trovna Klautsanu tt lishuru It Ratnigku tt Ages Svatavas 51,6 16,2 54,2 55,3 3,0 15,2 28,0 45,4. 60,1 4,1 10,6 70,6 62,4 11,9 4,9 121,3 1,5 11, ,9 379,1 105,3 27,9 10,9 6,4 1, Ill - 18,5 I 11,6 0,119 0,065 0,048 0,037 0,001 0,026 0,056 0,107 0,030 0,009 0,003 0,101 0,100 0,005 0,002 0,115 0,001 0,011 0,000 0,707 0,168 0,046 0,021 0,006 0,002 0,020 0, ,4 124,0 32,5 169,6 15,2 1d '3,0 157,8 47,7 77,9 1,2 163,1 140,7 61,2 0,5 72,8 53,9 27,9 81,5 111,352 17,160 7,408 5,563 5,477. 2,925 3,733 3,203 4,031 0,070 3,5.93 2,640 3,020 0,008 2,441 2,201. 1,882 1,954 31,7 2,506 0,5 0,00C, 77,0 2,582-68,6 2, ,2 2,426 51,8 18,5 120,6 169,6 6,5 48,1 143,6 24,2 178,1 37,7 7,5 147,3 133,5 93,7 6,9 122,5 7,5 76,3 40,0 75,4 211,2 13,4 59,3 26,7 6,1 1,4 62,9 85,9 0,257 0,127 1,328 0,505 0,058 0,364 1,525 0,451 1,090 0,226 0,244 0,534 0,877 0,413 0,014 0,580 0,138 0,824 0,308 0,398 0,851 0,037 0,231 0,170 0,160 0,003 0,146' 0, ,7 158,8 207,4 394,4 9,5 108,5 324,5 227,4 285,9 119,8 19,2' 381,1 336,6 66,8 12,3 316,6 9,0 142,1 40,9 482,4 398,0 41,3 101,9 33,6 84,6 1,4 149,9 234,7 111,729 17,352 I 8, ,106 ' 0,059 5,868 4,506 4,393 4,334 4,267 0,316 4,229 3,617 3,438 0,024 3,137 0,139 3,037 0,308 2,987 2,974 0,084 2,759 0,181 2,745 0,003 2,737 2,715 Lielezers-Limbazhu I t Ts ime lya Trsha As teres Balvu tt Araishu Subates Dr ikshu Nie cl'r ayu tv 93,5 13,3 16,4 31,4 47,8 220,3 37,6 57,2 58,6 0,049 0,003 0,011 0,073 0,046 0,139 51,9 86,2 45,8 68,9 25,3 0,024 40,1 0,201 67,2 0, ,3 42;5 0,136 I 21,5 3,1 0,006-0, ,2-9,6 2,225 75:,1 1,814 47,4 1, ,8 1,005 I 94,7 1,697 69,7 1,366 87,7 0,593 36,2 1,363 40, ,892 0,113 0,328 0,579 0,278 1,003 0,412 0,481 0,901 0,126 0, ,6 2,603 22,9 0, ,7 2, ,6 2, ,5 2, ,2 2, ,4 2, ,1 2, ,1 1, ,1 1,626 15,2 0,379 -6- Quantitative composition of zooplankton Continuation of Table 2' Rotatorial Cladocera I Copepoda Total NAME OF LA,KE DATE Lud zis Vaidavas Perkonu 1903 VII Skuyas Aiyazhu Rai skuma Rus tegu 1962V!! Yuveris Dunyu Dzil t ezers Raipalyu M. Baltinya Riebezers Lauku Leishu Garona Rakyu Tsepshu Lielezers-Ruienas. Lazdonas O Klapinya 1962V!!! Riebinya Lielezers 19631!! Bala t a Ozo lmui zhas Ka tvaru 1962V!!! (no tr) 0 (r1 t-f COE -sir) /l 41.) C.) Cri 59,5 I 0,098 35,2 I 8,4 ' 0,003-41,2 0,059 31,4 8,2 i 0,016-8,2 10,005 45,9 15,7 I 0,006-47,7 0,043 22,9 15,8 0,014 42,8 32,9 I 0,045 28,9 30,9 I 0,018 23,6 2,9 0,006 0,4 23,2 0,026 11,1 1,0 0,001-1,0 0,000 5,4 22,8 0,010 7,3 6,7 0,013 7,2 0,6 0,002 0,4 9,0 0,018 9,2 2,3 0,001-31,0.0,014 26,2 1,3 0, ,7 0,093 7,6 2,6 0,003 1,2 63,8 0,044 13,5 1,3 0,000 0,5 18,5 0,027 23,7 9,1 0,007 12,9 2,3 0,002 14,9 2,8 0,015 14,9 8,1 0,006-38,1 0,225 3,2 23,3 0,028-9,6 0,003 32,4 67,8 0,080 7,8 3,9 0,007 19,8 17,4 0,045 0,4 22,4 0,018 9,1 24,3 0,038 0,4.3,4 0,001 3,1 14,9 0,059 8,2 8,7 0,003 7,7 tne bo M àp ecimens /m 3 0, ,2-1 4,2 0, ,7-10,0 1,300 37,5-3, ,5 0,802 58,0' 0,674 79,9 0,605 25,9 0,013 44,3 0,437 58,2-13, ,5 0,268 40,6j 0,181 39,8 0,005 15,3 0,667 18,1-16,0 0,565 58,6-3,8 0,485 2,36 0,038 12,7 0,393 58,1 0,005, 2,4 0,531 56,9 0,412 51,0 0,157 29,3 0,519 3,5-1,3 0,277 24,6-49,1 0,410 53,6 0, ,6 0,284 41,3 0, ,2 0,178 86,7 0,027 12,8 0,120 31, ,1 0,027 I 1,8 0, ,551 0,108 0,141 0,008 0,562 0,498 0,581 0,663 0,547 0,723' 0,098 0,009 0,704 0,787 0,095 0,257 0,541 0,339 0,099 0,347 0,064 0,383 0,065 0,227 0,348 0,457 0,048 0,051 0,073 1,006 0,152 0,313 0,205, 0,143 0,285 0,187 0,672 0,004 0,003 CO 0.T4 _ 219,9 1,579 12,6 0, ,5 1,492 18,2 0,124 91,6 1,447 19,5 0,014 1Z7 1, ,6 1, ,7 1,300 80,4 1, ,566 92,5 1,186 14,0 0,099 9,9 1,008 70,7 0,983 53,6 0,982 16,3 0,102 36,3 0,942 18,3 0, ,8 0,938 5,1 0, ,9 0,925 16,5 0, ,3 0,821 4,2 99,1 73,6 46,0 21,2 ' 9,4 65;9 72,4 95,6 183,2 65,0 26,0, L O 0,070 0,785 0,767 0,616 0,582 0,057 0,575 1,034 0,566 0,521 0,498 0, ,2 I 0,482 37,6 0,253 37,5-0,194 26,2 '0,192 '18,2 0,033 -7- In group three, one can include 11 dystrophic lakes which are surrounded by marshes and whose areas are from hectares, average depths about 2 meters, and maximum less than 5 meters (Ratnieku, Drikshu, Katvaru, Ozolmuizhas, Lielezers, Lazdonas, Lielezers-Ruienas, Rakya, Klapinya, Tsepshu, Balota). The aquatic vegetation of these lakes is not very well developed. During the summer period, the average biomass is g/m 3 and the abundance, 66.4 M specimens/m 3 (Table 1). During the freeze-over period the zooplankton biomass in Lakes Ratnieku, Katvaru, Balota, Lielezers, Lazdonas and Lielezers-Ruienas is three times smaller than the summer one. It is interesting to note that in the heavily overgrown Lake Lazdonas, the winter zooplànkton biomass is almost twice as great as during the summer (Table 2). Basically, small forms (rotifers) make up the summer zooplankton biomass, while the winter zooplankton is comprised of large forms (copepods). This is explained By the fact chat during the summer period, the zooplankton here is heavily foraged by fish fry and other aquatic organisms. In the lakes investigated, 101 species of zooplankton organisms were identified, among them, 44 cladocera, 15 copepods, and 42 rotifers. The rotifers, cladocera and copepods respectively are widely distributed throughout almost all of the 55 lakes - Keratella cochlearis, Trichcerca capucina, Kellicottia longispina; Diaphanosoma brachyurum, Daphnia cucullata, Ceriodaphnia quadrangula, Chydorus sphaericus; Mesocyclops leuckarti. During the summer period many nauplii and copepodids of copepod crustaceans were observed in all the lakes. -8- In the eutrophie lakes of sub-groups 1 and 2, the cladocera comprise 80-90% of the zooplankton biomass, but their species composition is rather poor. Excluding the above mentioned widely distributed species, one can also name others; for example, Scapholeberis mucronata, Acroperus harpae, Perecantha truncata, Polyarthra trigla, Asplanchna priodonta, Conochilus unicornis, Eudiaptomus graciloides, Paracyclops fimbriatus. The greatest variation of species is found in the eutrophie lakes of sub-group three. To the species mentioned earlier can be added Aàplanchna herricki, Filinia longiseta, Alonella nana, Daphnla cristata, Leptodora kindtii, Eudiaptomus coeruleus, Mesbcyclops oithonoides and other species. The most varied species composition of copepod crustaceans was discovered in the mesotrophic lakes. Common are Mesocyclops oithonoides, Cyclops strenuus, Cyclops scutifer, Eudiaptomus graciloides, and rarely, Heterocope appendiculata, Euclops serrulatus and others. Besides the profuse species of zooplankton were found isolated species seen only in one or several lakes. To these belong the rotifers, Trichotria tetractis, Asplanchnopus syrinx (in Lake Perkonu), Mytilina mucronata (from Lakes Perkonu and Dumblis), Trichotria similis, (from Lake Saruma) and the cladocera Ilyocryptus sordidus and Ilyocryptus acutifrons (from Lake Ages), Anchistropus emarginatus (from Lake Sasalyu). In almost all of the bodies of water with signs of dystrophy (Lakes Ratnieku, Lazdonas, Drikshu, Rustegu, Ozolmuizhas) was found Holopedium gibberum. In Lake Ratnieku, Holopedium gibberum makes up as much as 18% of the zooplankton biomass. -9- The copepod crustacean Eurytemora lacustris was found in the deep lakes Yuveris and Ludzis. The species composition of the zooplankton during the freeze-over period is considerably poorer than during the summer. In March-April, commonly found in the lakes are such species of rotifera as Polyarthra euryptera, P. trigla, Kellicottia longispina, Keratella cochlearis, Keratella quadrata; species of cladocera such as Diaphanosoma brachyurum, Daphnia cucullata, Bosmina longirostris; and copepods, Mesocyclops leuckarti, Eudiaptomus graciloides and various developmental stages of copepods. In the conclusion, it can be noted that there are few planktonophages in the lakes investigated, and therefore the zooplankton is basically utilized by fish fry and fingerlings and also by bleak (Curter alburnus). It is possible to stock the deep lakes rich with zooplankton (Indzeru, Yuveris, Lades, Sasalyu, and others) with valuable species of fish -- ripus (Coregonus albula ladogensis), cisco (Coregonus peled) -- while the shallow ones (Lielais Bauzis, Aiyazhu, Tsimelya and others) can be used for goldfish (Carassius auratus). Lakes with impoverished zooplankton (Lielezers, Rakyu, Katvaru, and others) are generally not promising for the fishing industry.
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