of 4
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.




Publish on:

Views: 82 | Pages: 4

Extension: PDF | Download: 0

Cybernetics comes from a Greek word meaning the art of steering . Cybernetics is about having a goal and taking action to achieve that goal. Knowing whether you have reached your goal (or at least are getting closer to it) requires feedback , a concept that comes from cybernetics. Cybernetics [1] is the study of control and communication in the animal and the machine. Levels of Learning Context Assumptions Actions Results Single-Loop Learning Are we doing things right? Double-Loop Learning
  Cybernetics comes from a Greek word meaning the art of steering .Cybernetics is about having a goal and taking action to achieve thatgoal.Knowing whether you have reached your goal (or at least are gettingcloser to it) requires feedback , a concept that comes fromcybernetics. Cybernetics [1] is the study of control and communication in theanimal and the machine.  Levels of Learning Single-Loop Learning Single-loop learning assumes that problems and their solutions are close to each other in timeand space (thought they often aren't). In this form of learning, we are primarily considering our actions. Small changes are made to specific practices or behaviors, based on what has or hasnot worked in the past. This involves doing things better without necessarily examining or challenging our underlying beliefs and assumptions. The goal is improvements and fixes thatoften take the form of procedures or rules. Single-loop learning leads to making minor fixes or adjustments, like using a thermostat to regulate temperature.  Are we doing things right? Here's what to do—procedures or rules. Double-Loop Learning Double-loop learning leads to insights about why a solution works. In this form of learning, we areconsidering our actions in the framework of our operating assumptions. This is the level of process analysis where people become observers of themselves, asking, “What is going onhere? What are the patterns?” We need this insight to understand the pattern. We change theway we make decisions and deepen understanding of our assumptions. Double-loop learningworks with major fixes or changes, like redesigning an organizational function or structure.  Are we doing the right things? Here's why this works—insights and patterns. /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch2718/79640387.docMarch 17, 2005 ContextAssumptionsActionsResultsSingle-Loop LearningDouble-Loop LearningTriple-Loop Learning  Are we doing things right?  Are we doing the right things? How do we decide what is right?   Triple-Loop Learning Triple-loop learning involves principles. The learning goes beyond insight and patterns tocontext. The result creates a shift in understanding our context or point of view. We produce newcommitments and ways of learning. This form of learning challenges us to understand howproblems and solutions are related, even when separated widely by time and space. It alsochallenges us to understand how our previous actions created the conditions that led to our current problems. The relationship between organizational structure and behavior isfundamentally changed because the organization learns how to learn. The results of this learningincludes enhancing ways to comprehend and change our purpose, developing better understanding of how to respond to our environment, and deepening our comprehension of whywe chose to do things we do. How do we decide what is right  ? Here's why we want to be doing this—principles. Types of Complexity—Why Double and Triple-Loop Learning Are Needed When there are low levels of complexity, single-loop learning often will be enough to stay ontrack. Simple problems can be solved using processes that: ã focus on the parts of a problem in isolation, ã rely heavily on what has worked in the past or elsewhere (“best practices”), and ã are open to solutions proposed by leaders or experts.When the levels of complexity in our work and the issues we are working with are high, itbecomes more critical for us to be able to also use double- and triple-loop learning to: ã succeed in new contexts, ã make learning an integral activity, and ã ultimately to achieve results.As we focus on lasting change in the community, we are dealing with increasingly high levels of three types of complexity where success only comes through using processes that: ã focus on working with all the parts as a single system, ã accept that solutions emerge as situations unfold, and ã involve the concerned people in developing the solutions. Type Of ComplexityLowHigh Dynamic  Focus is on various parts or the whole system?Cause and effect are closetogether in space and time.Solutions can be found bytesting and fixing one part at atime.Cause and effect are far apartin space and time.Solution can be found onlywhen situation is understoodsystemically, taking account of the interrelationships amongthe parts and the functioningof the system as whole. Generative Solutions are planned or emergent?Future is familiar andpredictable.Solutions from the past or other places can be repeatedor replicated.Future is unfamiliar andunpredictable.Solutions cannot be calculatedin advance based on what hasworked in the past. Emergentsolutions have to worked outas situations unfold. Social  People involved have common People involved look at things /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch2718/79640387.docMarch 17, 2005  Solutions come from leadersor from participants?assumptions, values,rationales and objectives.A leader or expert canpropose a solution with whicheveryone agrees.very differently.Solutions cannot be given byauthorities; the peopleinvolved must participate increating and implementingsolutions.Adapted from Adam Kahane: Solving Tough Problems , San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 2004. /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch2718/79640387.docMarch 17, 2005
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks